Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Introduction The New Edition

Living in those villages, I learned to draw my water for laundry, drinking, and cooking from the river in buckets. In the fall and spring men on snow machines bring caribou to the villages, where I helped the women cut and dry the meat. I went to fish camps where families lived along the Mauneluk River during the spawning period in late summer and fall and helped cut hundreds of fish to be dried and put away for winter use. During this time, we also hiked along the tundra to pick salmonberries, cranberries, and blueberries to store for the rest of the year. While the women picked berries and cut and dried fish, men went out onto the tundra and often came back with caribou, moose, or bear. Every day we ate salmon, whatever fresh meat might have been caught, and berries with condensed milk for dessert. At

The Broad Spectrum Revolution

The range of edible wild plants in modern temperate Europe is extraordinary. It includes berries, bulbs, corms, fruits, fungi, grasses, herbs, leaves, nuts, pulses, rushes and tubers. Many of these are well known to us, such as acorns, beech mast and pine nuts, although the first two, while nutritious, are regarded as too boring for our modern diet, as well as requiring considerable effort to make edible. As for berries, fungi and fruit, the important knowledge was to identify those that were safe to eat something our ancestors must have accomplished. Others come as a surprise. The fact that the roots of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), various bulrushes and couchgrass (Agropyron repens), and the bulbils of the lesser celardine (Ranunculus ficaria) are all nutritious sources of carbohydrates is unexpected. Other versatile sources of sustenance include the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), whose young leaves and long taproot are still prized by some rural communities, notably in France,...

Wadi Kubbaniya And The Kom Ombo Plain

Further evidence of human habitation of the Nile Valley at the end of the LGM has come from the Kom Ombo Plain (Smith, 1976), which is a rich alluvial plain 50 km north of Aswan. Between 17 and 12 kya this area offered an attractive habitat for humans. Rainfall, having increased at the end of the LGM, was more abundant than now. So not only were the Nile floods more substantial, but also the rainfall in the Red Sea Hills to the east of the river was sufficient to feed the now dried-up tributaries that ran into the Nile across the Kom Ombo Plain. The range of foods was substantial. Animal bones included a now extinct large wild ox, the bubal hartebeest, several species of gazelle and hippopotamus, which appeared to be the principal game eaten. In addition, there were hares, hyenas, a form of dog, bandicoot rats and possibly 'Barbary' sheep. The streams and pools provided Nile catfish, Nile perch, the African barbel, and local species of oyster and soft-shelled turtle. The bones of some...

Herbivores are fussy eaters

Year on the mature leaves of evergreen blackberries formed in the previous growing season. There their feeding produces extensive yellow patches of premature senescence on these leaves. Nymphs will not move to the current season's leaves, even when severely crowded, and if experimentally placed on young leaves, will quickly migrate back to the old ones. However, the summer females, which these nymphs become, will not lay their eggs on blackberries. Instead they fly to the mature leaves of deciduous trees, usually oak, and lay their eggs there. The females that eventually arise from these second generation eggs then reject the tree leaves on which they were raised, and return to the now-mature current season's leaves of blackberries. There they lay overwintering eggs that will start the first generation again next spring.

Past and Current Blister Rust Spread in the GYE

White pine blister rust development and the epidemiology of pine infestation encompasses five spore stages (Table 8.1). Three stages occur on pine where C. ribicola is perennial, and two on the pathogen's primary or telial host, Ribes spp. (shrubs of currants and gooseberries), where it is an annual (Lachmund 1926, Lloyd et al. 1959). For pine infection to occur, it is necessary that susceptible Ribes species are located relatively near to pine trees. R. petiolare hudsonianum (western black currant), R. lacustre (prickly currant), R. viscosissimum (sticky currant), R. cereum (squaw currant), and R. inerme (white-stemmed currant) all inhabit the GYE, mainly lining riparian zones and mesic valley bottoms. R. lacustre and R. viscosissi-mum, however, can also be found growing on hillsides (Hagle et al. 1989). Mountain gooseberry (R. montigenum), a sixth local species, is commonly found growing in areas of whitebark pine. Although extensive studies have not been conducted on all GYE Ribes...

The Primacy Of The Landscape

Undeveloped But Potentially Useful

The function of the bioregion and its landscape is to maintain environmental services including waste management, water, energy and food supplies for the regional populations together with the maintenance of biodiversity, a cornerstone of sustainable development. For too long monoculture has dominated the rural landscape its role has been to support the global food markets, seeking justification in the presentation to the population of a spurious choice of food products. Clearly, the very shortest supply lines, serving local markets with good quality, fresh produce would seem to be both in the people's best interests and to be a more sustainable system in the long term. An assumption of urban landscaping is that the city is not, apart from a few token allotments, the place where food is grown. The city is not the location for trees and bushes bearing fruit, where groundcover is edible, or where vegetables are used as decoration. Mollison (1996) suggests that we, 'Replace energy hungry...

The Supply Of Fresh Water

A good way to determine whether agricultural production is ever limited by the human-caused decline of pollinators is to find out if beekeepers are hired to employ their hives to provide pollination services nature once supplied. The prices beekeepers receive for the pollination services of their bees could be ascribed to the loss of a natural service if, indeed, native or natural pollinator populations had declined. It is extremely difficult to get data, however, that tell what rents may be paid to apiarists to make up for a lost ecosystem service rather than to provide a service nature never supplied.73 The leading paper in the field notes that even when the local decline of a pollinator has affected production (of blueberries in New Brunswick, for example), it did not affect the overall market price for blueberries because that was set elsewhere by broader, regional effects. The essay observes bleakly that the economic impacts of pollinator declines have not been well recorded and...

Global Interests and Local Control of Forests

Since the 1980s recognition of this problem has led to a range of development projects aimed at one of several solutions. One solution is to offer local communities alternative sources of income so that they will not be dependent on forest products for their livelihood. A second solution is to promote markets for non-timber forest products (latex, nuts, berries) as a way to live off the forest without cutting down the trees. A third solution has tried to create local institutions that give the local communities

The marketing dilemma

Think about some of the new technologies that you or your colleagues have adopted in the past few years. Quickly, Blackberries come to mind. The TPPA factor is not large, since the Blackberry is basically a marriage of a Palm Pilot, on the market for more than 10 years, and a cell phone of similar vintage. The Crisis factor lies in the need for increasingly mobile workers to stay in touch with the home office and with each other. Void, the Blackberry (or Crackberry, to those addicted to it). Think of how you feel getting a return email, usually quite short, with the tag line, sent from my wireless email Blackberry. Pretty left out, right The TPPA is also not large because the cost of failure is small just a few hundred dollars and a return to your previous out of touch existence.

Biomass heating

Biomass Combustion Systems

For many millennia, the main source of energy was biomass, complex hydrocarbons produced by living organisms. Heat came from wood, charcoal, peat, bamboo, animal dung and bones, burnt in open fires and primitive kilns and furnaces. Natural oils, waxes and tallows gave light. Oils were pressed from seeds or nuts or rendered from whale or seal blubber, waxes were plundered from beehives or extracted from berries tallow came from the carcases of cattle. The Romans had a very effective form of 'central heating' fuelled by biomass. Even today - several centuries after fossil fuels began to be widely exploited -much of the third world still relies on firewood for heating and cooking. This dependence has had adverse environmental effects, particularly in Africa, but as the search for alternatives to fossil fuels intensifies, the potential of some types of biomass has been recognised.

Cultural Ecology

The Shoshoni inhabited the Great Basin of North America, a semiarid land with widely dispersed resources. The Shoshoni were hunter gatherers with simple tools and relied heavily on the collection of grass seeds, roots, and berries. Steward showed how almost every resource could best be exploited by individuals - except rabbits and antelope, which required seasonal group hunting. Each fall the Shoshoni gathered pine nuts that were stored for the long, cold winter. Although in winter they formed larger population concentrations, they did not form stable social units because pine nuts were not available in the same places each year, and groups therefore had to remain fluid to adequately exploit the Basin. Thus, the requirements of subsistence produced fluid and fragmentary social units that were lacking in distinct patterns of leadership.

What Are Wetlands

Wetlands is a general term used to describe areas that are always or often saturated by enough surface or groundwater to sustain vegetation that is typically adapted to saturated soil conditions, such as cattails, bulrushes, red maples, wild rice, blackberries, cranberries, and peat moss. The Florida Everglades and the coastal Alaskan salt marshes are examples of wetlands, as are the sphagnum-heath bogs of Maine. Because some varieties of wetlands are rich in minerals and nutrients and provide many of the advantages of both land and water environments, they are often dynamic systems that teem with a diversity of species, including many insects a basic link in the food chain.