Battery Technology Ebooks Catalog

EZ Battery Reconditioning Method

EZ Battery Reconditioning is a program that teach users how to bring back to life their dead batteries of all kinds. The program is authored by Tom Ericson, previously an employee of golf cart enterprise. He learnt the strategies of converting old batteries to the level of brand new ones and want to share. The program is workable for many types of batteries such as phone batteries, rechargeable batteries, laptop batteries, alternative energy batteries, AA batteries, AAA batteries, solar system batteries, and wind system batteries among many others. Apart from providing you with written instructions, the program also offer photos, diagrams and videos that make the entire process easy to comprehend. In addition to the reconditioning guide, you will also be availed with information on how you can get old batteries for free. You can then apply the strategies covered in the guide to recondition them freely. Reviving batteries save money. Better still, you can sell these batteries for profits. Evidently, this program can help you in a significant way. Give it a try and you will never regret. Read more...

EZ Battery Reconditioning Method Summary


4.8 stars out of 148 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Tom Ericson
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Price: $47.00

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My EZ Battery Reconditioning Method Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I purchased a copy myself to find out what all the fuss was about.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Electricity storage Batteries

Battery technology is still the most common method of storage, but the promised breakthrough in this technology has yet to materialise. Still in general use is the traditional lead acid battery which is heavy, expensive and of limited life. Even the ground-breaking Freiburg zero electric house relied on lead acid batteries for its fall-back position. The PV hydrogen fuel cell copes with most of the year (Figure 13.8). Banks of lead acid batteries in the Freiburg Solar House Banks of lead acid batteries in the Freiburg Solar House One of the most promising batteries is the Ovonic nickel-metal hydride battery. It can be discharged and recharged up to 10 000 times. As an indication of its efficiency, a lead acid battery could give a vehicle a range of 190 kilometres. The Ovonic battery would raise this to 480 kilometres. This order of improvement makes it an attractive storage proposition for buildings employing PV generation (Ball, P. (1997) Made to Measure, Princeton, p. 258).

New Cars New Fuels New Batteries

Two major advances that can revolutionize our transportation system will mature simultaneously cellulosic ethanol and the plug-in hybrid. About 2011, plug-in hybrids will start to hit the roads just at the same time that meaningful amounts of cellulosic ethanol are becoming available at service stations across the country. This will be a happy tie in the race between battery technology progress and biofuel progress. This synchronous combination will allow drivers to plug in their cars at night, drive about forty miles on battery power alone, and then use the cellulosic ethanol they purchased at their corner filling station for the rest of their trip. The car will get a minimum of 150 miles and potentially as much as 500 miles per gallon of gasoline. Some fuel cell driven cars running on hydrogen will begin to be commercially available in the next fifteen years. Their use will be concentrated in certain regions that have built a hydrogen distribution network. Battery technology will...

Lead acid batteries

Lead acid batteries are the best known of all rechargeable batteries. These are the cells used in automobiles worldwide as well as for small-scale energy storage in homes and offices. Advanced lead acid cells have been developed for utility storage applications, the largest being for a 10-MW plant in California. Lead acid batteries operate at ambient temperature and use a liquid electrolyte. They are extremely heavy and have a poor energy density but neither of these is a major handicap for stationary applications. They are also cheap and can be recycled many times, though they should not be completely discharged as this can cause problems.

Flow Battery

The lifetime of a Deeya L-Cell is 7 years, after which it can be refurbished with minimal cost to run for another 7 years, ad infinitum. The L-Cells require minimal or no maintenance during this period. They are temperature independent and can be placed in an outside environment. Most importantly, they can be charged very fast. A 4-hour system can be charged in about 2 hours. Deeya L-Cells are effectively 3 times cheaper than Lead-Acid batteries, and 10-20 times cheaper than NiMH, Li-Ion, and Fuel Cell options.

Converting Hybrids to Hybrids

Giving a hybrid such as a Prius plug-in capability can be achieved by installing additional battery capacity and controlling that added capability with hardware and software tweaks. The goal of the conversion is to enable the hybrid to travel much more frequently and for a longer duration in electric-only mode. Mymotion and EDrive are two companies that specialize in this type of conversion. One source of information on this is

The Role of Government

In 1996 Congress passed the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (known as the battery recycling bill''). This law phased out the use of mercury in batteries and provided for efficient and cost-effective collection and recycling or proper disposal of used nickel cadmium batteries, small sealed lead-acid batteries, and certain other batteries. It also exempted certain battery collection and recycling programs from some hazardous waste requirements.

The key problem with electric cars

For these early cars, the driving range was about 40 to 50 miles. To get more range with an electric car, you need more batteries, plain and simple, and that adds more weight, which in turn impacts how far the car can go on a charge. Because the first batteries weren't rechargeable, these first electric cars featured throw away batteries. When the batteries ran out, you simply replaced them with new batteries. Imagine how much that cost And imagine the disposal problem, except back in those days people didn't really have disposal problems. What you didn't want, you simply tossed into the river. (And we wonder how we got to our current predicament ) ItBEft These are the same problems range, charging time, weight, and charging ' capacity that designers of modern electric vehicles need to combat. Even the most advanced battery technology today can only store a small percentage of the energy potential of a gallon of gas of the same weight and space.

How Do Electric Vehicles Work

Electric drive systems are virtually nonpolluting and extremely energy efficient. Although only about 20 percent of the chemical energy in gasoline is converted into useful work at the wheels of an internal combustion vehicle, some 75 percent or more of the energy from a battery reaches the wheels of an EV. This helps make up for the fact that current battery technology does not allow the storage of nearly as much energy as is contained in the gas tank of a conventional car. Just as it was in 1910, it is the quality of the batteries that determine the cost, performance, and essential viability of EVs. The EVs from the major manufacturers that came to market and then left the market as the millennium turned used lead-acid batteries, the same type of battery that electric cars used at the turn of the previous century. By the way, that same type of battery powers the starter motor and radio in your current car. Now there are several new types of automotive batteries available and under...

Changing Hybrid Software

Executing a hybrid conversion is somewhat tricky but not beyond the bounds of reason making a change in the hybrid hardware and software that will allow the vehicle to perform better is an even trickier task. Such an alteration has been made on a few examples of the Honda Insight, the first modern hybrid to go on sale in America. However, the change was not to make the controlling software more sophisticated, as you might guess. Instead, the alteration offered the driver more control of the battery charge-discharge process. Thus a very skilled driver-operator could get additional range and fuel economy by adapting the vehicle operation and its battery charging to subtle nuances that could escape the on-board computer system's capabilities.

Mild or Partial Hybrids

Multiple engines with minimal changes to the engine or transmission. For example, in the Saturn Vue Green Line, the system is mated to a 2.4-liter four-cylinder engine and an electronically controlled automatic transmission. Because of this, the system eschews the advantage of using a smaller-than-standard engine, but the use of an engine and transmission that would otherwise power the car has benefit on the cost side by removing added complexity. And the system does improve fuel economy by using typical hybrid techniques such as automatic engine start-shutoff, early fuel cutoff during deceleration, battery charging during deceleration, and intelligent battery charging. alternator motor to supplement the engine's torque. Rather than integrating the electric motor with the transmission, the system uses an aramid cord belt that transmits motor torque to the crankshaft when needed for acceleration and from the crankshaft to the alternator to generate electricity to charge the...

Understanding your offgrid options

Off-grid solar power systems (including hydropower, wind power, and PV systems) provide electrical power, but it's relatively expensive. Using PV electrical generating systems connected to the grid (intertie) enables you to sell your excess generating capacity back to the utility and therefore use 100 percent of your system's productive capacity (Chapter 16 has the details). Conversely, when you install an off-grid solar PV system, you don't get anywhere near 100 percent utilization, plus you need batteries, charge controllers, and more. All this extra equipment is expensive and maintenance intensive.

Nickelcadmium batteries

Nickel-cadmium batteries have higher-energy densities and are lighter than lead acid batteries. They also operate better at low temperatures. However they tend to be more expensive. This type of battery was used widely in portable computers and phones but has now been superseded by lithium ion batteries. The largest nickel-cadmium battery ever built is a 40-MW unit in Alaska which was completed in 2003. It occupies a building the size of a football field and comprises 13,760 individual cells.

Technologies For Propelling Cars Trucks Trains Ships And Aircraft

Engines can be divided into three catagories (I) motors driven by the electricity from chemical or mechanical storage batteries, (II) internal combustion engines (ICEs) fed by portable chemical fuels that can react with oxygen in the air, and (III) fuel-cell engines (FCEs) fed by chemical fuels that react with atmospheric oxygen. Motors in catagory (I) convert electricity from a storage battery by induction into mechanical motion of the wheels of an automobile via a series of gear trains, with an efficiency of 85 to 95 . ICEs in catagory (II) convert the heat of fuel combustion into mechanical motion via piston action with an efficiency of 30 to 40 , while FCEs in catagory (III) utilize an electrochemical reaction of fuel with atmospheric oxygen on special electrodes with an efficiency between 45 and 85 , whose electricity drives a motor as in (I). These efficiencies are ratios of energy delivered for mechanical locomotion over energy provided by a battery or fuel. Although FCEs are...

Nano and Microscale Approaches to Energy Storage and Corrosion

The three-dimensional electrochemical cell is a hypothetical device that illustrates how some of the advances in microscale and nanoscale electrochemistry over the past two decades may be applied to its construction (Figure 6.1). The three-dimensional electrochemical cell is a conventional battery in the sense that it has a cathode and anode, but they are configured in an interpenetrating array with electrodes anywhere from micron dimensions if they are prepared using lithographic techniques down to the nanometer scale. The advantage of the three-dimensional electrochemical cell over conventional two-dimensional batteries is that the additional dimension, termed L, can be increased indefinitely. Increasing L results in an increase in energy capacity without any loss of power density in the cell, because electrons travel the same distance between the anode and cathode regardless of the thickness of the cell. This cannot be accomplished with a conventional battery. Potential...

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

As to a fuel cell itself, it's somewhat synonymous with a storage battery that doesn't require recharging. Similar to a battery, it consists of two electrodes around an electrolyte. Oxygen passes over one electrode and a fuel, hydrogen, passes over the other, resulting in a chemical reaction that creates a flow of electrons (electricity), heat, and a hydrogen-oxygen combination commonly called water. Unlike batteries that run down after continuous discharge, fuel cells will continue to make electricity, heat, and water as long as they are provided with oxygen and hydrogen. Unlike the typical vehicle engine, which converts energy stored in its fuel to usable power via combustion (i.e., burning), fuel

Electricity Waiting for Batteries

The key issue is not energy production and distribution but vehicle and battery technology, as discussed in chapter 2. Because electricity generation and transmission are well understood and a secondary consideration in the success of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, we do not elaborate further on electricity issues.

Avoiding disposable products

L Rechargeable batteries They may cost more initially, but they save you (and the environment) in the long run. Here are the economics Alkaline batteries cost around 1.00 apiece (for good ones) and they produce around 2,000 mAh (milliamp hours) apiece. Then you toss them out. Rechargeable batteries cost around 12 apiece, and a good charger costs around 35, but you can charge a battery 2,000 times. The conclusion non-rechargeables cost around 22 times as much. And this doesn't even take into account the environmental impact of discarded batteries. The best bet of all is to get a solar recharger, in which case you're getting all your battery power from the sun.

Plug In and Fire Up the Engine

Unlike HEV, PHEV vehicle batteries can be recharged simply by plugging them into an ordinary 110-volt electrical outlet. With PHEVs, you can use the power you already get from your utility company to essentially fill your tank. The promise of plug-in vehicles is truly revolutionary. The widespread use of such technology to green our primary mode of personal transportation would likely take a big bite out of our dependence on foreign oil. It would also mean a significant reduction in CO2 and other greenhouse gases. What's the problem with mass adoption of PHEVs Why aren ' t automakers rushing to get these vehicles to the market pronto Actually, many automakers are trying to get a viable PHEV vehicle mass produced. The problem with mass production of PHEVs at this stage is battery technology. Lithium batteries are currently the main technology for PHEVs. And yes, that' s the same lithium battery technology used in my favorite electronic gadgets such as cell phones. But this technology...

Reducing Emissions From Motor Vehicles

Converters are very effective, but they only work when hot a lot of exhaust escapes when the car is warming up. One advantage to hybrid cars, discussed below, is that they use their battery packs to preheat the catalytic converter as soon as the engine is started. An emerging option for reducing pollution from motor vehicles is hybrid vehicles. Hybrids use old technologies a small internal combustion engine, an electric motor, and a rechargeable battery and combine them in new ways to use fuel more efficiently. A normal car burns gasoline in its internal combustion engine for energy. When the brakes are applied, the vehicle's kinetic energy, the energy it holds because it is in motion, is lost. This wastes fuel and produces harmful tailpipe emissions. Hybrids also burn gasoline to run the combustion engine, but during braking they harvest the vehicle's kinetic energy to regenerate the battery, saving fuel and emissions. When the car accelerates or travels uphill, the battery boosts...

Altalr Nanotechnologies

Phoenix's zero-emission SUTs and SUVs can travel at freeway speeds while carrying four passengers and a full payload. The vehicles will have a driving range of over 100 miles. The best part here is that because of Altair Technologies advanced lithium-titanate batteries, Phoenix's vehicles can be recharged in less than 10 minutes. The battery pack is also very durable, boasting a life span of greater than 250,000 miles.

Technologies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles

An important recent development is that of the hybrid electric motor car that combines an internal combustion engine with an electric drive train and battery.25 The gains in effi ciency and therefore fuel economy achieved by hybrid vehicles are typically around 50 . They mainly arise from (1) use of regenerative braking (with the motor used as a generator and captured electricity stored in the battery), (2) running on the battery and electric traction only when in slow-moving or congested traffic, (3) avoiding low-efficiency modes of the internal combustion engine and (4) downsizing the internal combustion engine through the use of the motor battery as a power booster. Toyota and Honda were the first two to introduce hybrid vehicles and other manufacturers are following. An imminent development is of the plug-in hybrid which will enable the larger than normal car battery to be boosted by connecting with a commercial electricity supply. For shorter journeys the plug-in hybrid could run...

Portable Energy Sources

+ Electricity Rechargeable Electric Storage Batteries Rechargeable Mechanical Flywheel Batteries As long as large quantities of energy cannot be transmitted wirelessly (Tesla's dream), there will always be a need for portable energy sources. At present, portable fuels used in land or sea transportation and in aircraft propulsion come mostly from the non-renewable resources listed under (a), that is Oil (Petrol or Diesel), Natural Gas (Compressed in Cylinders), and Coal. When these non-renewable resources are depleted, artificially manufactured energy sources must be developed which can be carried on-board vehicles to fuel engines or energize motors that propel the vehicles. Such portable energy can come in the form of a portable (synthetic) fuel that can be refilled periodically into an on-board fuel tank, or as an energy storage battery which is periodically recharged. In what follows we briefly examine past and present activities to develop portable synthetic fuels and rechargeable...

The Pluses and Minuses of Battery Powered Electric Vehicles

That being said, the electricity that goes through the grid and into the storage batteries of each electric car has to come from somewhere. them acceptable range, electric vehicles need substantial battery capacity, and those batteries are expensive. Many of them use relatively expensive base materials, and those materials then have to be combined and crafted into functioning electricity storage modules. Although electric motors and the controllers that operate them are pretty cheap in the overall scheme of things and very efficient to boot, the batteries needed to power them are worlds more expensive than installing an empty container designed to be filled with gasoline or diesel.

Opportunities for Renewable Energy

On the turbine side, variable-speed wind turbines (which will soon be the norm as a result of enhanced energy capture relative to constant-speed machines) rely on power electronics to convert the variable frequency, variable voltage AC produced at the generator to DC. Small turbines used in battery-charging applications stop here The small wind-to-hydrogen systems ( 20 kW) being studied today are systems incorporating a common DC bus fixed with a battery bank to which the wind turbine and electrolyzer as well as fuel cells and PV panels are connected. Typically, the wind turbine is of the battery-charging type, which requires connection to a constant voltage DC bus (hence, the battery bank) and incorporates power electronics to convert wild AC to DC and to regulate power output. The electrolyzer stack accepts DC power input but the system would also include power electronics to regulate power input and possibly convert DC at one voltage level to another.

Producing lots of electricity plan G

The immense dependence of plan G on renewables, especially wind, creates difficulties for our main method of balancing supply and demand, namely adjusting the charging rate of millions of rechargeable batteries for transport. So in plan G we have to include substantial additional pumped-storage facilities, capable of balancing out the fluctuations in wind on a timescale of days. Pumped-storage facilities equal to 400 Dinorwigs can completely replace wind for a national lull lasting 2 days. Roughly 100 of Britain's major lakes and lochs would be required for the associated pumped-storage systems.

Amounts And Forms Of Energy Consumed By

Solar cells converting sunshine directly into electricity, have been under subsidized development for more than 50 years. The best units have overall efficiencies of about 8 (including losses from voltage up-conversions and storage), yielding about 437 kW per acre of solar panels when sun-shine peaks. Allowance for diurnal, seasonal, and weather fluctuations reduces this value by 75 to an average 109 kW per acre, while a further reduction of 25 of land area for access roads to install and maintain solar panels, storage batteries, and transmission lines, yields a final 82 kW per acre. To replace all present petro-fuel and electric energy generation with solar-cell energy requires (9.1 billion kW) (82kW acre) 111 million acres of sunny open land. Construction of a large solar complex generating a million kW of electricity costs about 10,000 per kW and requires 12,500 acres of desert land. To provide 9.1 billion kW world-wide by solar cells then requires 91 trillion of capital investment...

Nuclear Facts And Fables

Regarding wind power, one comes to similar conclusions. Five-hundred 2 MW(e) windturbines costing 1.0 billion dollars, put on 30,000 acres (120 km2), could yield 1000 MW(e) of electric power at full capacity. However the wind is not always blowing, and typical capacity factors for windfarms are 20 . To provide 1000 Mw(e) steadily for a whole year, electric storage batteries are needed (adding costs) and five times as many wind-turbines must be in place. In short, one needs 2,500 wind turbines of 2 MW(e) at a cost of 5 billion + 2 billion for interim storage, or a total of 7 billion to provide 1000 MW(e) year around. The typical capacity factor of a nuclear plant is 85 , so a 1200 MW(e) reactor costing 1.8 billion can provide an average of 1000 MW(e) during a year. Besides the high cost of maintaining 2,500 windmills, wind-farms have the problem of killing hundreds of birds and spoiling nature's scenery. Fable (6) Hydrogen-consuming fuel-cell engines and electric energy storage...

Types of energy storage

A rechargeable battery may appear to store electricity but in fact it stores the energy in chemical form. A pumped storage hydropower plant stores potential energy a flywheel stores kinetic energy while a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant stores energy in the form of compressed air, another type of potential energy. Alternatively one might use electrolysis to turn electricity into hydrogen, yet another chemical form of energy.

Regenerative Fuel Cells

For automotive applications, the Livermore National Laboratory and the Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies have studied URFCs in great detail and found that, compared with battery-powered systems, the URFC is lighter and provides a driving range comparable to that of gasoline-powered vehicles. Over the life of a vehicle, the URFC was found to be more cost-effective because it does not require replacement. In the electrolysis (charging) mode, electrical power from a residential or commercial charging station supplies energy to produce hydrogen by electrolyzing water. The URFC-powered motor car can also recoup hydrogen and oxygen when the driver brakes or descends a hill. This regenerative braking feature increases the vehicle's range by about 10 , and could replenish a low-pressure (about 14 atm) oxygen tank, the size of a football. Utilities are also looking at large-scale energy storage systems employing regenerative fuel cells. The proposed systems store or release...

Hydrogen cars blimp your ride

I think hydrogen is a hyped-up bandwagon. I'll be delighted to be proved wrong, but I don't see how hydrogen is going to help us with our energy problems. Hydrogen is not a miraculous source of energy it's just an energy carrier, like a rechargeable battery. And it is a rather inefficient energy carrier, with a whole bunch of practical defects.

Some questions about electric vehicles

My transport diagram shows only the use cost. If electric cars require new batteries every few years, my numbers may be underestimates. The batteries in a Prius are expected to last just 10 years, and a new set would cost 3500. Will anyone want to own a 10-year old Prius and pay that cost It could be predicted that most Priuses will be junked at age 10 years. This is certainly a concern for all electric vehicles that have batteries. I guess I'm optimistic that, as we switch to electric vehicles, battery technology is going to improve. World lithium reserves are estimated to be 9.5 million tons in ore deposits (p175). A lithium-ion battery is 3 lithium. If we assume each vehicle has a 200 kg battery, then we need 6 kg of lithium per vehicle. So the estimated reserves in ore deposits are enough to make the batteries for 1.6billion vehicles. That's more than the number of cars in the world today (roughly 1 billion) - but not much more, so the amount of lithium...

The Pluses and Minuses of Hybrid Vehicles

The downsides of hybrids are much less publicized but very important to understand. Compared to a conventional gasoline car, a hybrid is much more complicated. In addition to its internal combustion engine, it also has a second, integrated drive system in the form of the electric motor and battery pack. One could say it has two complete drive systems, and that would be correct with the exception that both power plants channel their energy through the same transmission. There is nothing inherently wrong with complicated technology. But in the case of hybrids, complication adds weight, expense, and more systems that can fail. around the globe currently are hard at work trying to perfect battery technology that will result in cheap and light electrical storage batteries.

Electricity Propulsion Mobility

In the minds of many auto industry people the EV-i's battery pack was expensive, its body dangerously light and its range on one charge too short. These and other problems convinced GM the car was not broadly marketable. Its solution, as if bent on simultaneously insulting customers and its employees, was to take the little cars back and crush them like bugs. Customers were justifiably enraged. Among electric car aficionados the major debate is over batteries versus hydrogen fuel-cells. New battery technologies, notably lithium-ion and metal hydride batteries, offer shorter recharge times and greater storage capacity, but still take time to charge. Moreover, lithium-ion batteries are known to degrade, thus requiring a costly new battery pack, and they are very flammable. Hydrogen fuel-cells represent a comprehensive alternative because a hydrogen-electric system of the same format would be equally viable for vehicles, even buildings. GM has already developed a home power system using...

Electric Cars Round

Anderson built what is generally regarded to be the first electric vehicle. Unfortunately for Anderson (and our air quality), battery technology at the time had not advanced to the point of creating a rechargeable battery. The batteries in Anderson's car had to be replaced when they were exhausted, meaning the car was impractical for everyday use. It wasn't until the 1860s when Raymond Gaston Plante invented the lead-acid battery that a reliable, rechargeable battery reached common use, and it took further developments by Emile Alphonse Faure to make those batteries suitable for motor vehicles. After that, though, the dam of innovation burst. Even though Sir David Salomon's 1870 attempt to build a practical electric car was doomed by the weight and poor storage capacity of its batteries, by 1886, battery technology had improved to the point that electric taxicabs were in use in England, and Jack the Ripper may well have taken one to escape one of his grisly murder scenes. Two years...

Landfills and the Environment

Lead is an environmental contaminant found in municipal waste that can damage virtually every human organ system. A naturally occurring metal found in small amounts in the Earth's surface, lead is used in many products including lead-acid batteries, consumer electronics, glass and ceramics, plastics, cans, and pigments. The EPA estimates in 2000 there were 1.9 million tons of lead-acid batteries in MSW. mercury. Another component of MSW is mercury. Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that is found both in liquid and gas form. It is used to produce chlorine gas and is used in the manufacturing of many products. Once in ground and surface water, it accumulates in fish that humans may eat. It harms the human nervous system and other body organs. The EPA estimates that 172.7 tons of mercury was discarded in waste in 2000. Most of that came from household batteries, thermometers, electronics, paint residues, and pigments. In 1996 Congress passed the Mercury-Containing and...

Storage Of Electrical Energy

In multiple use storage batteries, input electrical energy is converted into an active chemical within the battery. The chemicals are stored within the battery for later regeneration of the electricity. The chemical reactions used to store energy in both types of batteries are similar. The difference lies in the fact that the storage battery can be recharged, but the single use battery must be replaced. Storing electrical energy in batteries has many limitations. Batteries store a small amount of energy useful in short cycle applications such as starting an automobile, powering a flashlight, or providing emergency lighting. The only common uses for batteries that involve the storage of a meaningful amount of energy are golf carts and similar small vehicles. Other examples of these uses are the courtesy vehicles used to transport people inside airports and small forklifts used inside warehouses. These vehicles share similar requirements. They need only go short distances at low speeds....

Brief Future Global Energy

Denmark recently claimed to have reached its maximum capacity for windpower generation, which supplies 20 of its electric grid. However this is only 7 of its total energy consumption if one includes its use of petrol, diesel, and natural gas. Clearly when the latter energy sources are gone, it must find other means of replacing them to empower its transportation fleets and heavy industries. The only sources for additional prime energy are then coal or uranium whose production of electricity or heat allows the manufacture of synfuels, or the charging of portable energy units (storage batteries and flywheels) on a Joule for Joule basis. The laws of energy conservation and energy inter-conversions first enunciated by Sir James Prescott Joule and Nicolas Carnot are immutable nothing comes for nothing. In summary, preferably by the year 2030 but not later than 2050, the entire energy pie shown in Brief 26 must be accomodated by nuclear fission (available for at least 1300 years), if one...

Economic Limitations of Solar Energy

Likewise, due to the diffuse nature of sunshine, the collecting area necessary to produce large amounts of solar energy is by necessity large. The absence of sunlight during night-time and reduced insolation in cloudy conditions also necessitates back-up generators or expensive and limited-energy storage batteries. With continued research and technological improvements however, solar energy will in the long run certainly become an important part of our energy-mix.

Electric cars is range a problem

People often say that the range of electric cars is not big enough. Electric car advocates say no problem, we can just put in more batteries - and that's true, but we need to work out what effect the extra batteries have on the energy consumption. The answer depends sensitively on what energy density we assume the batteries deliver for an energy density of 40 Wh kg (typical of lead-acid batteries), we'll see that it's hard to push the range beyond 200 or 300 km but for an energy density of 120Wh kg (typical of various lithium-based batteries), a range of 500 km is easily achievable. Let's assume that the mass of the car and occupants is 740 kg, without any batteries. In due course we'll add 100 kg, 200 kg, 500 kg, or perhaps 1000 kg of batteries. Let's assume a typical speed of 50 km h (30mph) a drag-area of 0.8 m2 a rolling resistance of 0.01 a distance between stops of 500 m an engine efficiency of 85 and that during stops and starts, regenerative braking recovers half of the...

Technology Required

The process of charge separation and energy accumulation in a battery can probably best be explained by reference to a class with which most people will be familiar - namely the lead-acid battery which provides starting power in road vehicles. This chemical storage format has been around a very long time 19 , in electrical engineering terms, having been invented by Gaston Plante in 1859. In the lead-acid storage cell the cathode is formed from spongy lead (Pb), while the anode is also made of lead but coated with lead dioxide (PbO2). The two electrodes are usually interleaved to expose maximum surface with alternating anode and cathode surfaces. These plates are immersed in an electrolyte, which comprises a solution of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) diluted with water (H2O). In a fully charged battery the proportions are 25 acid to 75 water. Lead reacts quite The electrical energy provided by a battery during discharge is derived from the electrochemical reactions taking place between the...

Potential for Providing Intermittency Correction

Compared with lead-acid batteries, EC capacitors tend to have lower energy densities but they can be cycled tens of thousands of times and are much more powerful than batteries because of the speed at which they can be discharged (fast charge and discharge capability). The current state of the art is that while small electrochemical capacitors for energy storage application are well developed, larger units with energy densities over 20 kW-h m3 (72 MJ m3) are still under development. Capacitor banks in warehouses each occupying a modest area of about 1000 m2 could be capable of storing 20 MW-h or more, in the not too distant future, if a serious, well funded, commitment were to be made to advance the technology to production level.

Needed Actions And Risks To Overcome The Pending Nooil Crisis

In a democracy, option (4) would in principle be rejected outright, since too many people would perish. This leaves us with options (1), (2), and (3), or a mixture of them. In all of these three options, a program for extensive synfuel manufacturing is included which is to be developed concurrently with an expansion of prime energy providers, whether uranium, renewables (solar and wind), or coal. The technology of manufacturing synfuels is essentially identical and can be evaluated independently of possible prime energy suppliers. In Chapter 4 it is shown that electrical and mechanical storage batteries are impractical for long-haul applications as alternates for inducing locomotion. Only synfuels produced with the aid of nuclear electricity from air and water (and sunshine for bio-alcohol) are adequate substitutes for current petrols.

Faet cettpoWered Vehicles

A fuel cell-powered vehicle (FCV) is basically an electric car that uses fuel cells as the primary power source. In such a car, hydrogen and oxygen are fed into the fuel cell, which produces electricity which is directed into the battery bank (conventional batteries are used) and the power controller. The battery bank is used to allow for varying amounts of power to be directed to the electric motor (fuel cells are poor at decreasing and increasing their power outputs at a fast enough rate to directly power the wheels, although this is changing with new technological developments).

What Are Gasoline Electric Hybrids

The push toward hybrids came in the wake of the realization that battery-powered pure electrics were just not going to work for most people in most situations if and until there was a breakthrough in battery technology. As the DOE put it, Hybrid power systems were conceived as a way to compensate for the shortfall in battery technology when electric vehicles were introduced.

Hurdle Electrics Couldnt Jump

The final death knell for the first wave of electric vehicles came in 1912 with Charles Kettering's development of the self-starter. Ironically, Kettering used an electric motor wired to a storage battery to power his starter. It made gasoline cars infinitely more practical because it removed the onerous and often dangerous task of starting the engine by jerking a crank. Up until the invention of the self-starter, many men

What is the scope for switching from oilfuelled to electric vehicles

Yet electric-vehicle technology is advancing rapidly. Vehicle hybridisation, involving the addition of an electric motor and an energy-storage system (typically a battery) to a conventional engine fuel system, has attracted most investment and has already proved commercially successful - in spite of relatively high costs. Further improvements to storage systems are necessary to boost efficiency and lower costs despite significant progress in recent years, even the best lithium-ion batteries available today suffer from inadequate performance and high costs. Ultra-capacitors, which store energy in charged electrodes rather than in an electrolyte, are increasingly being seen as a complement to batteries they store less energy per unit weight than batteries but are able to deliver energy more quickly. Research into these technologies is expected to yield further major improvements in the coming years. In the longer term, plug-in hybrids, fully electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cells...

How Do Gasoline Electric Hybrids Work

As the federal government defines it, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that has two sources of motive energy. What this means in practice is the use of some type of internal combustion engine combined with an electric motor (or motors) getting its (their) power from storage batteries. Unlike so-called pure electric vehicles, the batteries are not charged by an outside source for example, plugging them into an electrical socket in your garage. Instead, their batteries are charged by an in-vehicle charging system. Thus, they are self-contained except for the need to refuel their internal combustion engines. The internal combustion engine used in a typical HEV can be sized to deal with average load, not peak load, because the auxiliary stored power, usually electric battery power used to activate the electric motor, is used to deal with higher loads such as hill climbing. This has the benefit of allowing the installation of a smaller, lighter, and less fuel-thirsty engine. In...

Nickelbased batteries

Nickel-based battery cells include the nickel-cadmium (NICAD, or NiCd) and the nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) versions. Nickel-based batteries hold much more charge per unit volume of weight than lead-acid batteries, plus they are capable of more recharging cycles over the course of a lifetime (they're good for literally hundreds of charge recharge cycles). In some of the newer embodiments, the charge time is decreased, and all of these factors make the nickel-based batteries superior, performance wise, to lead-acid versions.

Electrifying vehicles

The electric car runs by using rechargeable batteries, so it doesn't need any fuel on board at all. It was invented in the mid-1800s, and by the beginning of the 1900s, one-third of all cars were electric. However, they rapidly lost popularity after gas-powered cars adopted electric starters (no more hand-cranking) and the motoring public started ranging farther afield to places where you couldn't recharge an electric car.

Leadacid cell battery

The most common type of battery in use today is the lead-acid cell. Lead-acid batteries are used in almost every conventional vehicle to start the internal-combustion engine. Once the engine is started, the battery is recharged. These same types of batteries are suitable for driving an electric car, and until much better technologies became available (see the next section on nickel-based batteries), were commonly used.

Technology Trends in Transportation

Turning from the fuels to the vehicles that burn them, the advent of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the automotive market in recent years has generally improved the potential fuel economy of vehicles. The modular design of HEV powertrains enables several generations of development from the same platform. It is envisaged that HEVs will become progressively more electrified as new models are introduced over time. If forecast advances in battery technology are realized, the plug-in HEV with a 150-kilometer all-electric range will be available for city use in the relatively near future. This will have significant additional benefits in improving urban air quality and noise. With good planning and optimized electricity generation, it can also lead to more efficient use of energy and reduced overall GHG emissions.

Early electric cars circa

Thomas Edison built an electric car in 1889. His car used nickel-alkaline batteries. Other manufacturers of the time used lead-acid batteries (the type under the hoods of modern cars). Both types of batteries simply fed the battery's electricity directly to an electric motor which powered one or more of the wheels of the car. The next sections discuss the design and disadvantages of the early electric cars as well as the breakthrough in gasoline-powered cars that dealt such a blow to the sales of electric cars.

Next Generation Batteries

Today's batteries come in several forms and use a lot of exotic components with odd acronyms. Beginning at the common end of the spectrum, the lead acid batteries now used to start the typical car are made up of plates (or electrodes) of lead and lead oxide, with an electrolyte solution of water and sulfuric acid in between. Putting those chemicals in contact with those metals produces an electric potential that can be drawn down as needed. And it's reversible As the engine sends a current back to the battery, it regains its ability to start the car. Lead acid batteries are cheap, well understood, and generally safe. But they' re too crude to save us They hold too little energy per unit of weight, take too long to charge, and need to be maintained and replaced regularly. It ' s just about over, in other words, for traditional lead acid batteries. The first new battery model was nickel-cadmium,, or NiCd, with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and electrodes of nickel hydroxide and...

The Promises Of Nuclear Power

Preventing Wars Along with battery-driven or hydrogen-driven automobiles, nuclear power has the potential to prevent world wars over Middle East oil supplies. Middle East oil is crucial to the well-being of many nations as long as they rely so heavily on gasoline-driven automobiles the United States led the Gulf War in 1991 (at a cost of tens of billions of dollars) to prevent loss of control of that oil. The Middle East currently supplies 30 of the world's oil this will likely rise to 50 within a few years. Development of practical, inexpensive storage batteries for electric cars, coupled with nuclear electricity to charge the batteries, could greatly reduce our need for gasoline.


The energy cost of making a rechargeable nickel-cadmium AA battery, storing 0.001 kWh of electrical energy and having a mass of 25 g, is 1.4 kWh (phases R and P). If the energy cost of disposable batteries is similar, throwing away two AA batteries per month uses about 0.1 kWh d. The energy cost of batteries is thus likely to be a minor item in your stack of energy consumption.

Automotive Research

Energy storage technologies, especially batteries, are also part of the program. Batteries are critical technologies for the development of advanced, fuel-efficient, light- and heavy-duty vehicles. They are in the process of developing durable and affordable batteries that cover many applications in a car's design, from start stop to full-power hybrid electric, electric, and fuel cell vehicles. New batteries are being developed to be affordable, perform well, and be durable.

Wind Power

The wind blows everywhere on the planet. You might think, why not harness it for power in buildings Typically, average annual wind speeds of 11 miles per hour are needed for commercial applications, while lower wind speeds can be used for water pumping and battery charging. Now, most cities are not built in places where the average wind speed (every hour of the year) is 11 mph that's not really very comfortable. So the best wind resources are located away from cities, and the most cost-effective wind power comes from large-scale wind farms that feed the power generated into the electric power grid. On a good site with modern equipment, wind energy costs in the range of 5 to 8 cents per kilowatt hour, quite competitive with most new power sources.165

Mobile Storage

Combustion engine Gasoline is an extraordinarily efficient way to store energy, with a vastly higher ratio of energy to mass than any existing battery. GM ' s famous EV- 1 electric car needed 1,200 pounds of lead acid batteries just to travel 100 miles on a charge, while a 20-gallon tank of gas weighs only about 150 pounds and can take a 20-mile-per-gallon car 400 miles. But in the coming decade, gasoline's dominance will be challenged by several new energy storage devices. These are among the most promising.

Compressedair cars

There's talk of Tata Motors in India manufacturing air-cars, but it's hard to be sure whether the compressed-air vehicle is going to see a revival, because no-one has published the specifications of any modern prototypes. Here's the fundamental limitation the energy-density of compressed-air energy-stores is only about 11-28 Wh per kg, which is similar to lead-acid batteries, and roughly five times smaller than lithium-ion batteries. (See figure 26.13, p199, for details of other storage technologies.) So the range of a compressed-air car will only ever be as good as the range of the earliest electric cars. Compressed-air storage systems do have three advantages over batteries longer life, cheaper construction, and fewer nasty chemicals.

Useful Work

If this concept seems strange at first, it may be easier to think in terms of the electrical equivalent of motive power (from an engine), or the electrical equivalent of chemical work or heat. The electrical equivalent of motive power is already a reality, for instance, in electrified railroads, where electric motors drive the wheels. The electrical equivalent of chemical work is also exhibited by storage batteries, for instance, which convert electricity into chemical potential, and vice versa, albeit with some losses in each direction. Similarly, high temperature industrial heat provided by fuel combustion and heat exchangers could be equated to the amount of electricity required to produce that heat, at the point of use, by an electric stove or toaster, or an electric arc furnace.

Peek at the Future

In Chapter 2, I floated the idea that today's conventional gasoline-powered cars are, in reality, a mild type of hybrid vehicle. They use their gasoline engines to move themselves, but other functions, such as powering audio and navigation systems, heating and ventilating fans and the crucial electronic engine control and ignition systems are powered by a storage battery that is kept in a proper state of charge by the gasoline engine. Even starting the gasoline engine is accomplished by the use of an electric motor, again powered by the battery. Given that this is now considered conventional, it is not too difficult to imagine a day when a variety of separate systems now considered exotic or alternative could merge within a vehicle and become the new convention. At speeds below 31, Zero Mode will shut off the engine and switch the car to electric power only. In this mode, the battery bank provides a range of between 6 and 12 miles. The engine is smoothly reengaged whenever the battery...

Valence Technology

Valence Technology (Nasdaq VLNC) is small battery maker that has developed a phosphate-based lithium-ion battery technology called Saphion. Saphion batteries are lighter and designed to store more energy than traditional lithium batteries. If the company' s battery technology is successful, it will help make HEVs, PHEVs, and EVs safer, more reliable, and more affordable. With phosphate to keep it from catching fire, the Saphion battery also is equipped with an advanced management system that monitors and enhances cell performance. The battery packs will be available in 12.8-volt and 19.2-volt modules, and the company says it hopes the batteries will be powering electric vehicle fleets in Europe soon.

Alas Its Not to Be

The technical barriers to shifting the transportation system over to hydrogen should be overcome within a decade. That, however, will probably be too late. Long before fuel cell vehicles are cheap and reliable enough to take off, the world will have shifted to plug-in hybrids and biofuels. Both will be here in a couple of years and can be serviced using the existing gasoline refining, transporting, and refueling infrastructure. And thanks to breakthroughs in battery technology, hybrid efficiency is improving almost as quickly as that of fuel cells but from a cheaper starting point. So in the coming decade, it's possible that municipal and commercial fleets will choose fuel cells, but it's probable that the rest of us will go electric or biofuel. In recognition that the odds have shifted, the major makers of automotive fuel cells have scaled back and shifted their strategies, with industry leaders Ballard Power Systems now focusing on fleet vehicles like buses and forklifts, and Energy...

New Electrics

Finally, advancing technology is prompting another look at electric cars. Wind- and solar-generated power is becoming more efficient, while many are taking a second look at nuclear reactors as a possible source of cheap power. Pure electric vehicles are waiting for a breakthrough in battery technology to improve their viability, and even though we haven't got there yet, new developments in battery tech are promising, as long as this laptop doesn't catch on fire

Advanced Batteries

While fuel cells certainly are the most interesting aspect of pink bunny power, I shouldn't omit advancements in battery technology. As you know from Chapter 3, advanced battery technology is currently being used to power up hybrid vehicles. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries are a staple in the hybrid vehicle market, but this advanced battery technology is also being employed for use in stationary backup power systems and the consumer electronics market. NiMH batteries have the advantage of being much more energy dense than traditional battery technologies such as lead acid and nickel-cadmium (NiCd).

Flow batteries

A flowing-electrolyte battery, or flow battery is a cross between a conventional battery and a fuel cell. It has electrodes like a conventional battery where the electrochemical reaction responsible for electricity generation or storage takes place and an electrolyte. However the chemical reactants responsible for the electrochemical reaction and the product of that reaction

Hewlett Packard

HP offers to recycle HP inkjet and LaserJet cartridges for free. It offers to recycle any brand of computer hardware and also offers drop-off locations for rechargeable batteries in the United States and Canada. HP has partnered with the National Cristina Foundation to place donated computer equipment that can be reused.


A potentially big but largely unknown factor is the battery pack. To date, the rechargeable batteries have demonstrated a remarkable amount of staying power, and some service experts who work for the major hybrid manufacturers have told us they will last essentially for the life of the vehicle. But if the battery does fail, know this it will be very expensive to replace.

Heat pumps

Heat pumps have been compared to rechargeable batteries that are permanently connected to a trickle charger. The battery is the ground loop array which has to be large enough, together with a matched compressor, to meet the heating cooling load of a building. The energy trickle comes from the surrounding land which recharges the volume of ground immediately surrounding the loop. If the energy removed from the ground exceeds the ground's regeneration capacity, the system ceases to function, so it is essential that demand is matched to the ground capacity (from Dr Robin Curtis, GeoScience Ltd).


Battery-powered electric vehicles are a great option for many commuters. Practically pollution-free, they offer one of the best options for lowering vehicle emissions in polluted cities. Unfortunately, power plants that create electricity do pollute. But efficient emission control measures are more easily installed and maintained on individual power plants than on millions of vehicles. Even though the driving range of electric cars is limited by low-power vehicle batteries, cutting-edge research is being done in this area. By creating batteries that take minutes instead of hours to recharge and run for longer distances on one charge, electric power could become a widespread, clean fuel transportation option for future decades.

Plugging Hybrids

PHEVs could also be the salvation of the ailing American auto industry. Instead of continuing to lose market share to foreign companies, U.S. automakers could become competitive again by retooling their factories to produce PHEVs that are significantly more fuel-efficient than the nonplug-in hybrids now sold by Japanese companies. Utilities would also benefit from the transition because most owners of PHEVs would recharge their cars at night, when power is cheapest, thus helping to smooth the sharp peaks and valleys in demand for electricity. In California, for example, the replacement of 20 million conventional cars with PHEVs would increase nighttime electricity demand to nearly the same level as daytime demand, making far better use of the grid and the many power plantsthat remain idle at night. In addition, electric vehicles not in use during the day could supply electricity to local distribution networks at times when the grid was under strain. The potential benefitstothe...

Wind Energy

During the first half of the twenty-century it was possible to purchase a wind operated electric generator. The generator was attached to a battery pack. When the wind blew, the generator would charge the batteries. The energy stored in the batteries could be used whenever needed. At the peak of their use, it was possible to purchase a standard system by mail order. The equipment included a set of instructions and all the necessary equipment (wind turbine, generator, electric wires and batteries) to equip a building with a modest amount of lighting. Today, these systems are still available but their use is limited to very remote places. They are uneconomical and unreliable when compared to wire electric power and the wide scale availability of small engine driven generators fueled with low cost petroleum based fuels.


In the first place, a hybrid vehicle's high-voltage battery pack cells are sealed and protected by their metal battery cover. In addition, all high-voltage circuits and plugs for the system are marked, color-coded orange, and posted with warnings to advise of their presence, so well-trained fire-rescue teams should have few difficulties understanding the threat and avoiding it. Rescue workers routinely remove the ignition key and disconnect the vehicle's 12-volt battery immediately upon reaching an emergency situation with a conventional vehicle. Even if warnings on the car are ignored, taking these initial two steps will disable the high-voltage controller on a hybrid, essentially negating the electrocution threat.

Piuqin Hybrids

The big difference between a plug-in hybrid and the hybrids on the road today is, well, you plug it in. We're sure you grasped that, but you might not grasp the why, because you know hybrids carry their own electrical generating capacity and are much more convenient than electric cars because you don't have to plug them in. But plug-in hybrids take that potential negative and turn it into a positive by using extra battery capacity charged by your electrical connection at home the grid to give the vehicle extended range in all-electric mode. When vehicles run in all-electric mode they emit zero emissions, and they get incredible fuel economy. For instance, a Toyota Prius that has been equipped with large-format lithium-ion batteries and a new integrated control system is claimed to be capable of 180 miles-per-gallon for 60-mile urban commutes. That's about three times the economy of today's The added battery capacity allows significant amounts of zero-emission driving with PHEVs. This...


The Cleopatra Alembic

The PV cells are packed into modules that produce a specific voltage and current when illuminated. PV modules can be connected in series or in parallel to produce larger voltages or currents. Photovoltaic systems can be used independently or in conjunction with other electrical power sources. Applications powered by PV systems include communications (both on earth and in space), remote power, remote monitoring, lighting, water pumping, and battery charging. The two basic types of PV applications are the stand-alone and the grid-connected systems. Stand-alone PV systems are used in areas that are not easily accessible or have no access to mains electricity grids. A stand-alone system is independent of the electricity grid, with the energy produced normally being stored in batteries. A typical stand-alone system would consist of PV module or modules, batteries, and a charge controller. An inverter may also be included in the system to convert the direct current (DC) generated by the PV...

Energy stores

Sphere Tank Hydrocarbon Transfer Pump

Surplus electricity from wind turbines, solar PV panels and mini hydro is normally best 'stored' on the national grid, via net metering, if it is available (see Chapter 1). Buildings not connected to the grid normally have either large conventional batteries or standby fossil-fuelled generators for when supplies from the alternative energy source are inadequate. Purpose-designed deep cycle or deep drawdown batteries are essential, of the type often used for forklift trucks. Automotive starter batteries are not suitable. Current battery installations mostly use lead acid technology, and have a limited lifespan. Developed in Australia, vanadium flow batteries are said to have a much longer potential operating life than lead acid or other conventional battery types, and to be much easier to scale up for larger installations. Two installations of more than 200 kW have already been completed on wind farms in Japan and Tasmania and one that is designed to produce 1.5MW for up to eight hours...

The Grid

The need for frequency and voltage control for grid connected generators can probably best be illustrated by considering a very simple electrical circuit formed from batteries and loads (light bulbs for example). The arrangement is valid insofar as we know that at 50 Hz, wavelength on the grid is so long ( 6600 km), that branches of the grid (typically 100 km) are sufficiently short in wavelength terms for the voltage and current on the line to be considered to have DC characteristics. 'Power stations' on our elementary 'grid' circuit each have two rechargeable batteries connected through a reversing switch. There are several power stations and several loads (consumers) all interconnected by two copper wire loops, one 'live' and one 'earth'. The power station batteries are connected through a switch such that one (battery A, say) has its positive terminal connected to live with the negative terminal connected to earth, while the other (battery B) is disconnected. When the switch is...

Solar energy

The photovoltaic effect is created in photovoltaic cells. These cells can consist of any materials that are classed as 'semi-conductors', the most common type consisting of a thin wafer of crystalline silicon coated on each side with boron and phosphorus. When silicon is exposed to sunlight, electrons are released and a 'P N'junction is created. This is where the electrons and the spaces where the electrons were originally are separated. The effect of this is to create a voltage across the thickness of the silicon wafer.36 An electric current will flow if an external electrical circuit is connected to the front and back surfaces of the solar cell. This is shown inFigure 2.2.Groups of cells are usually mounted onto a module with a generating capacity of 100 watts. For increased power supplies, modules are connected into larger arrays. The electricity generated by the array is stored in a battery bank via a charge controller, which prevents overcharging during the day and discharge at...

Solar power

Whatever its type, a solar power plant has a major weakness. It can only generate electricity when the sun is shining. During the night there is no sunlight and so no electricity. In order to circumvent this problem, a solar power station must either have some form of conventional fuel back-up, or it must incorporate energy storage. Solar cells are frequently coupled with rechargeable batteries in order to provide continuous power in remote locations. Solar thermal power plants can also be designed with heat storage systems which allow them to supply power in the absence of the sun.

The Ecogrid

So how will this MES buffered, renewables based, electricity supply system operate Table 4.1 can help in making some informed guesses. But before we consider the implications of the comparisons presented in the table, it will be helpful to recall the simple electrical circuit, which we introduced in Sect. 2.6 to illuminate the operation of the grid. We can use the same simple circuit concept to illustrate the operating principles of a massive electricity storage, generation and transmission system, which henceforth will be referred to as the ecogrid. The pair of connecting wires of our elementary circuit (the grid) are connected to rechargeable batteries (MES), electric bulbs (loads consumers), while the batteries are also connected to clockwork charging devices (renewable electric power stations). As before, one interconnecting wire will be routed to the positive terminals of the array of batteries, while the other will be connected to the negative terminals (usually earthed)....

Common Uses

Remote mountain or desert homes in sunny locations can get reliable electricity from solar generation for lighting, radio, or television. PV systems are made up of a PV panel, a rechargeable battery to store the energy captured during daylight hours, a regulator, and the necessary wiring and switches. These simple systems are known as solar home systems. Apart from off-grid homes, other remote buildings such as schools, community halls, and clinics can all benefit from electrification with solar energy. Solar can power TV, video, telephones, and a range of refrigeration equipment (that meet World Health Organization standards for vaccine refrigeration), for example. In rural areas, rather than mount solar power panels on individual dwellings, it's also possible to configure central village power plants that can either power homes through a wired network or act as a battery-charging station where people can bring batteries to be recharged. PV systems can be used to pump water in remote...

Electric vehicles

The REVA electric car was launched in June 2001 in Bangalore and is exported to the UK as the G-Wiz. The G-Wiz's electric motor has a peak power of 13 kW, and can produce a sustained power of 4.8 kW. The motor provides regenerative braking. It is powered by eight 6-volt lead acid batteries, which when fully charged give a range of up to 77 km. A full charge consumes 9.7 kWh of electricity. These figures imply a transport cost of 13 kWh per 100 km. Now, the G-Wiz sits at one end of the performance spectrum. What if we demand more - more acceleration, more speed, and more range At the other end of the spectrum is the Tesla Roadster. The Tesla Roadster 2008 has a range of 220 miles (354 km) its lithium-ion battery pack stores 53 kWh and weighs 450kg (120Wh kg). The vehicle weighs 1220 kg and its motor's maximum power is 185kW. What is the energy-consumption of this muscle car Remarkably, it's better than the G-Wiz 15 kWh per 100 km. Evidence that a range of 354 km should be enough for...

Hybrid Cars

The main disadvantage is cost the purchase price of an EV today is still around 100,000. This will drop drastically when Nissan American comes out with its electric vehicle in 2010 and Bajaj Auto starts producing its 2,500 car in 2011. Other disadvantages include the limited driving range of the electric cars, long charging time, short battery life, and the small cargo space because of the weight and size of the batteries. To overcome the charging time, there are some high-voltage charger designs (Altair Nanotechnologies) that claim to reduce the normally required time from several hours to about 10 minutes. Until new batteries that can provide much higher energy densities without compromising safety are discovered, fuel cells will continue to outperform today's heavy and large storage batteries. On the other hand, it is less expensive to build electric cars with batteries than with fuel cells. Today's batteries are less expensive than fuel cells, but their energy density is...

Storage Principle

In the electrical power industry, energy storage in batteries represents a well established technology. However it is a technology that is undergoing a renaissance after a forty year developmental plateau. This has been triggered by the renew-ables revolution, but has been facilitated by developments in power electronics and control engineering, which means that highly sophisticated battery conditioning systems can be realised at moderate cost. Modern power electronic switching processes also make it possible for an intrinsically DC battery storage systems to be easily and efficiently connected into the AC grid system. stored in the resultant electric field. In electrochemical energy storage (ECES) systems the work of charge separation is performed by chemical processes associated with strongly reactive materials, and three different storage systems can be identified. These are primary batteries, secondary batteries, and fuel cells. Primary and secondary batteries utilise the chemical...

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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