Avian Flu: Preparing for a Pandemic

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

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Pandemic Preparedness Guide

Inside this information dense guide youll discover: Water & Food: The 2 common water storage containers that are breading grounds for bacteria that could kill you so you know to avoid them. How 8 drops of this common household chemical will instantly sterilize any drinking water container (its not vinegar or ammonia) so your can drink safely. The 21 dried foods you Must have stored to remain self-contained until the threat passes so your family can eat when grocery stores are bare. How to reduce energy and heat to cook by 70% with this special pot that only costs about $17 at Wal-Mart (It also doubles as a sterilizer) so your cooking fuel last 3X longer. How to create an inner home cocoon so you dont have to heat or cool your entire house so you save on heat and energy when the power is out or sporadic. How to recharge batteries an Unlimited number of times just using the sun so you can power your devices forever. How to create a resilient community in your neighborhood Now so you are not alone in defending your area so you can keep the infected and even looters out. The one plant that will keep intruders from coming in through your windows and openings in your home so you remain safe. How to train your dog to act when strangers are near your home so you know when and how to protect yourself. 3 weird uses for a fire extinguisher in a pandemic. The formula for the Ultimate protection against infection, so even our youngest family members remain disease free. How to create an isolated environment for the sick so they dont get everyone else sick while you are waiting for emergency workers. The one kind of phone that is most likely to work in a disaster so you can have constant communication with the outside world even if the power is completely out The one way to Never communicate with your family in a crisis so you dont create panic and unrest in a tense situation.

Pandemic Preparedness Guide Summary

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Contents: 24 Page Ebook
Author: Joe Marshall
Price: $4.95

My Pandemic Preparedness Guide Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

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Pandemic Survival

This eBook shows you what it takes to survive the next pandemic. There is no doubt that in the future, the world will be hit with a huge pandemic, either from natural causes or from a terrorist attack. As you look through history, you will be hard-pressed to find any pandemic in history that has killed less than 1 million people. You do not want you or your family to be among those millions. And with the help of the information in this eBook, you have a way to survive the global pandemic that will come. Wishing it won't happen doesn't do anything Preparing for it gives you the tools to survive AND thrive. This book contains the two-pronged approach of John Hartman's years of research in figuring out how pandemics work and living through a dangerous flu outbreak. This gives you the methods to both avoid getting a virus in the first place, and how to strengthen your immune system should you come down with a virus. You don't have to lay down and die. You can fight the next pandemic. More here...

Pandemic Survival Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: John Hartman
Official Website: www.pandemicsurvival.org
Price: $37.00

Influenza Pandemics

A new journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is devoted to this global challenge. Since 1975 more than 40 new pathogens (mostly viruses) have been added to the ever-growing list of contagious diseases. They include such scary but limited outbreaks as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Africa, Nipah virus in Malaysia, Singapore, and Bengal, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest (Yates et al. 2002) as well more widespread and hence more worrisome cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (the human form of mad cow disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy), crypto-sporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, SARS and HIV AIDS (Morens, Folkers, and Fauci 2004). As far as unpredictable discontinuities are concerned, only one somatic threat trumps all of this we remain highly vulnerable to another episode of viral pandemic. High-frequency natural catastrophes have their somatic counterpart in recurrent epidemics of influenza, an acute...

Global Welfare and the Human Population

Some changes tend to be more global than others, although it is safe to say that the global nature of events and changes in living conditions have increased in the modern age of rapid communication and transportation. Positive global changes wrought by the revolution in computer technology and communications are everywhere, but some global changes in the speed and ease of human movement have had negative consequences. An example is the rapid spread of new, formerly local diseases, as I discussed in chapter 2. Globalization led directly to the spread of AIDS, and fears have been legitimately raised that other, even more frightening diseases such as Ebola might begin to breach their previously narrow geographic boundaries.

Parasites introduce a potentially important mechanism for densitydependent regulation

Influenza pandemic of 1918-1920, historically the estimates for the global death toll have been around the 20 million mark (Anderson and May, 1991 Porter, 1997), however, more recent studies of contemporary records suggest a figure of 50 million or more (Johnson and Mueller, 2002). As I wrote the first draft of this chapter (June 2005) there was a growing concern about the possible effects of the next influenza pandemic in a crowded world of over 6 billion people (Osterholm, 2005), indeed it is very plausible that some readers of this book could die in such a future pandemic (emeritus professors should probably worry more than university students, as in many influenza outbreaks the elderly are particularly at risk, although the 1918-1920 pandemic apparently did not follow this pattern). Crowded populations are more susceptible to such virulent microparasites, indeed this is why many authors assume that these microparasites were less important in human history before the development of...

Fossil Cities the Contemporary Conundrum

The mounting dependence on the advanced - and by definition fragile - artefact city is a major risk in itself, but the present energy crisis threatens the very foundation of modern urbanity. This risk reaches deeper than mere infrastructure dependencies. Hermann Scheer enumerates the multiple energy crises engulfing the world today global poverty levels are tied to the fossil fuel economy - some 40 of the poorer countries spend more on petroleum imports than their export earnings nuclear crises loom due to misguided hankerings for atomic power on the part of a number of developing countries water depletion crises brought about by pandemic pollution, abuse and global-warming induced precipitation changes - and glacial melting. These are magnified by the enormous thirst of old-fashioned thermal power stations still prevailing today health crises are endemic to most industrialized and technologically emerging societies through fossil-based air, water and soil pollution and agricultural...

The AIDS epidemic continues to grow among drug users who inject It could be curbed if governments more readily adopted

We hope that knowledge of the encouraging results of both pilot and full-scale programs may lead officials to strengthen policies to deal with this aspect of the AIDS pandemic. In this article, we review an array of strategies that should be more widely pursued and elaborated before the epidemic be

Increasingly in demand

One way is to draw the link between apparently disparate phenomena. When the man or woman on the street realises that the new human pandemics that affect her family and her community directly are profoundly connected to what is happening to the trees in the forest, the fish in the sea, the birds in the sky and the animals of the earth, then she will not need persuasion to read on, watch or listen. Once the reader, viewer or listener realises that SARS or avian flu viruses breed more easily in polluted environments, then it is easier for her him to draw the link between environment and health, and see how infectious diseases travel, increasingly across borders. As with many other issues jostling for public attention today, it is not the content but the style in which a certain message is being delivered that can decide whether a story is page one material or relegated to page 14. Sometimes labelling a story as an 'environment' story gives it an unnecessarily narrow focus because the...

Education and the Demand for Green Governance

Of course, all environmental problems are not created equal. Public health concerns, for example, are a much more salient issue with urbanites than the more abstract notion of a growing ecological footprint. Tell a city's residents that the city's footprint has grown 40 percent over the last decade, and there is unlikely to be a rush to the mayor's office demanding action. Contrast this with the outcry that would occur in the event of a public health crisis, such as an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

WORLDWiDehelp Group LiNKS

Http katrinahelp.info Rita Help http ritahelp.blogspot.com http ritahelp.info Quake Help http quakehelp.blogspot.com (blog) http smsquake.blogspot.com (SMS-to-blog failed experiment) http quakehelp.asiaquake.org (wiki) Avian Flu Help (H5N1) http avianfluhelp.blogspot.com WorldWideHelp http worldwidehelp.blogspot.com http www.worldwidehelp.info

Anthropogene Warming Period

There are four security-related implications to the opening of both passages. First, traditional security problems of an international waterway will arise. This panoply of ills includes smuggling, crime, and other features of transportation networks. Second, the spread of new and exotic diseases via these trade routes can be a potential problem. Canadian airports, after all, were significant entry points for SARS for a variety of reasons. Third, even if Canada implements strong environmental regulations, the probability of an accident will increase with the corresponding growth of ship traffic. As the Exxon Valdez accident demonstrated, the grounding of a large vessel in fragile polar waters can produce an ecological disaster. Fourth, the lifestyle of Canada's northern Aboriginal peoples, as well as Russia's, will dramatically change with increased international shipping. There will need to be some support programs for such large transitions of demography and lifestyle.

Investigation of propagated source epidemics

Propagated Source Epidemic

A particular event in time that brought all the cases together or linked them by a common phenomenon), then the incubation period can be calculated and a disease (or aetio-logical agent producing a disease) with this incubation period can be suspected. This method was used to work out the incubation period for the first epidemic of Ebola haem-orrhagic fever, as there were a large number of fatal cases that occurred in one hospital at the same time.

The Industrial Revolution the Automobile and Fossil Fuels

By 1820, the worldwide transition to coal was well underway. However, the smoke and smog coming from burning coal had a serious downside C ity-dwellers began to die prematurely from a new pestilence. London's air quickly became so bad that by 1879-80, some three thousand were killed by aggravated lung conditions. Indeed, by the time the political will was found to ban coal-burning domestic hearths in the mid-1950s, lung ailments had killed more Londoners than even the 1918 influenza pandemic.3

An Ornithologist Speaks

These fears of Europe's demographic demise stoked concern that the huddled masses of the rest of the world were on a demographic march that would, as the eugenicists warned, swamp the white races. The evidence for this was sketchy. In 1918 a worldwide flu pandemic killed an estimated forty million people and put back world population growth by an estimated five years. And Catholic theologians, with their worldwide network of priestly spies in confession boxes, were predicting a catastrophic population decline in poor countries as well as rich.

What are the catastrophic risks and how catastrophic are they

Pandemics The 1918-1919 flu pandemic is a reminder that nature may yet do us in. The disease agent was an unexpectedly lethal variant of the commonplace flu virus. Despite its lethality, it spread far and wide because most of its victims did not immediately fall seriously ill and die, so they were not isolated from the healthy population but instead circulated among the healthy, spreading the disease.1 No one knows why the 1918-1919 pandemic was so lethal, although it may have been due to a combination of certain features of the virus's structure with the crowding of troops in the trenches and hospitals on the Western Front (where the pandemic appears to have originated near the end of World War I), facilitating the spread of the disease.2 The possibility cannot be excluded that an even more lethal flu virus than that of the 1918-1919 pandemic will appear someday and kill many more people. There is still no cure for flu, and vaccines may be ineffective against a new mutant strain and...

Extended Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

The above-cited report suggests that Chernobyl produced a demoralization among the neighboring population, beyond that which could be directly attributed to the health effects of radiation. Chernobyl may also have had profound effects on the Soviet Union as a whole. The technological failure at Chernobyl and the attempted coverup of the accident is cited as one of the reasons for the collapse of confidence in the Soviet system. This possibility is reflected, for example, in an op-ed piece entitled Will SARS be China's Chernobyl Before drawing the parallel with SARS, the author writes 23

Acute Respiratory Infections ARI

Organisms A number of different organisms have been implicated including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza, rhino-viruses, adenoviruses, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Viruses are of a wide range, with each species having a number of serotypes, with new ones appearing from time to time. However, the most important cause is S. pneumoniae or the pneumococcus or H. influenzae. The host defends him or herself by producing an appropriate immune response, but because of the large number of serotypes, it is a continuous process. Infection will cause illness in some people, but not in others who have developed an immune response to the specific organism or an antigenically similar serotype. New antigenic mutations, as occur in influenza, can cause epidemic or pandemic spread Surveillance Measles generally occurs as seasonal epidemics, which can be forecasted and top-up vaccination given (Section 12.2). Influenza is...

Naturally Occurring Diseases

Infectious diseases cause roughly half of all deaths today. The organisms producing them fall into four main groups bacteria, viruses, the rickettsiae, which lie between bacteria and viruses in complexity, and parasites such as the protozoa of malaria and the tiny worms of schistosomiasis. Malaria and tuberculosis are the biggest killers at present, the second slightly in the lead with its roughly three million fatalities per year. However, the 'Spanish influenza' virus of the 1918-19 pandemic may have infected almost everyone on the globe, and it killed twenty million. And while modern medicine has perhaps now managed to make smallpox extinct, also greatly reducing the threat from poliomyelitis and diphtheria, there are many diseases (malaria and tuberculosis included) which have grown resistant to drugs and antibiotics, much as mosquitoes and other disease-carriers have developed immunity to pesticides. In addition, new pathogens such as the Legionella bacterium are constantly...

Antibiotic Resistance

If antimicrobial drugs were to lose their efficacy completely, the cost would be truly catastrophic. Even with their use, infectious diseases remain the second-highest cause of deaths worldwide. Without them, every annual influenza epidemic might bring many more deaths due to bacterial pneumonia, and tuberculosis and typhoid fever might become very difficult or impossible to treat. Some appraisals of the current situation are very pessimistic. Amyes (2001) concluded that we are slipping into an abyss of uncontrollable infection. Amabile-Cuevas (2003) thinks that, in many ways, the fight against antibiotic resistance is already lost.

Response Effectiveness

Most recently, as part of a research network organized by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences called the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS), we have been adapting EpiSims to model a naturally occurring disease that may threaten the entire planet pandemic influenza. over the past year, a highly virulent strain of influenza has raged through bird populations in Asia and has infected more than 40 human beings in Japan, Thailand and Vietnam, killing more than 30 of those people. The World Health Organization has warned that it is only a matter of time before this lethal flu strain, designated H5N1, more easily infects people and spreads between them. That development could spark a global flu pandemic with a death toll reaching tens of millions see SA Perspectives, Scientific American, January . to a small population. To simulate the appropriate conditions in which the strain would likely emerge among humans, we are constructing a model representing a...

Assessing the Compensating Differentials Approach

And their electromagnetic fields raises cancer risk. If no one is aware of this fact, then homes close to these power lines will not sell for a discount. 38 Or consider the evolution of home prices in Hong Kong in the wake of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. One analyst found that apartment prices fell by an average of 3 percent in buildings housing SARS-affected tenants.39 If prices return to their pre-SARS level, will this mean that the conditions that facilitated the spread of SARS have been corrected or simply that people have forgotten about this particular threat 40

Environmental Change

Finally, I note an invisible but fatal environmental change. Pandemic-carrying viruses (see chapter 2) are not the only constantly mutating microorganisms. Bacteria, their more complex allies, are nearly as adept at defeating our controls, and they, too, add to a growing list of emerging infections (Morens, Folkers, and Fauci 2004). The most worrisome result of bacterial mutations is the emergence and diffusion of antibiotic-resistant strains of potentially lethal bacteria. In most hospitals there are now only one or two antibiotics that stand between us and an incurable attack of antibiotic-resistant microbes.

Nick Bostrom and Milan M Cirkovic Introduction

The term 'global catastrophic risk' lacks a sharp definition. We use it to refer, loosely, to a risk that might have the potential to inflict serious damage to human well-being on a global scale. On this definition, an immensely diverse collection of events could constitute global catastrophes potential candidates range from volcanic eruptions to pandemic infections, nuclear accidents to worldwide tyrannies, out-of-control scientific experiments to climatic changes, and cosmic hazards to economic collapse. With this in mind, one might well ask, what use is a book on global catastrophic risk The risks under consideration seem to have little in common, so does 'global catastrophic risk' even make sense as a topic Or is the book that you hold in your hands as ill-conceived and unfocused a project as a volume on 'Gardening, Matrix Algebra, and the History of Byzantium' We are confident that a comprehensive treatment of global catastrophic risk will be at least somewhat more useful and...

The Bad News

Although cholera, typhus, typhoid, measles, smallpox, mumps, polio, yellow fever, and others have been eradicated and the great triumph of modern medicine over the microbiological pathogens has been trumpeted far and wide, the apparently sudden and unexpected emergence of new diseases has badly shaken people's confidence and strongly fueled the general perception of a dismal future. After AIDS and Legionnaire's disease there was SARS and, as I write now, the fear of a pandemic avian flu similar to the deadly pandemic of 1918. Playing on these fears are books and movies about the horrific African hemorrhagic fevers like Ebola, the resurgence of bubonic plague in Africa and elsewhere, and the forecasts of worse to come if global warming takes hold in a big way. For the emergent diseases, including antibiotic-resistant strains of older familiar ones, it is probably safe to say that with the help of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health...

Disaster Planning

Finally, there is the threat of a pandemic - a widespread serious disease that disrupts business. Pandemics occur several times each century and typically last for 18 months or more, as people who avoided the illness think it has passed, begin mingling with people again, and become infected. A significant source of the disease spread is contact with other people. Working from home minimizes this contact.

Research and Health

That causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS see the New and Emerging Diseases section of this chapter) found that low levels of lead cause cognitive problems in children (see chapter 9) found that body weight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes and discovered gene mutations and variants that cause a variety of rare human diseases, including all of the many hereditary cancers, glaucoma, Huntington's disease, inherited deafness, and many others. Most of these genetic discoveries were made possible by the completion of the Human Genome Project, one of the best-known research triumphs of the past decade, which allowed for the sequencing of the entire human genome. The finding that aspirin reduces stroke and heart attack risk, the discoveries of Taxol and tamoxifen for the treatment of breast cancer, the cure for childhood leukemia, the role of cholesterol in heart disease, the discovery of Lyme disease and the agent responsible for it, cisplatin's ability to...

NOT iNDiGENOUS

Lakshmi Narayan Gujjar in the Kankwadi Guada of the Sariska Tiger Reserve is a ruthlessly practical man. Says he, 'instead of giving us 3 hectares of land without irrigation facilities and very little money for construction of a house and no employment opportunities, they (the government) might as well allow us to continue living inside the forest. Here inside the forest after all we can live in peace without having to pay for water and unlimited natural resources.' Unlimited natural resources indeed, but his cattle graze on the same pastures where the cheetal, nilgai and sambhar graze. Cattle infected by Rinderpest or some other deadly virus pass on the viruses to the herbivores. Anthrax and Rinderpest are some of the most vicious threats to wildlife. As if the threat of infections is not deleterious enough, the cattle also rob the wild ungulates their food supply in the forest. If that same patch of forest is protected inviolate from all anthropogenic conflict, it serves the purpose...

Availability

In thinking about risks, people rely on certain rules of thumb (heuristics) that serve to simplify their inquiry.117 When using these mental short-cuts, people answer a hard question by substituting an easier one.118 Should Americans be fearful of hurricanes, nuclear power, AIDS, mad cow disease, alligator attacks, sniper attacks, or avian flu To answer this question, people try to think of relevant examples.119 If images of the threat come easily to mind, people are far more likely to be frightened and concerned than if they do not. Consider a simple study showing people a list of well-known people of both sexes and asking them whether the list contains more names of women or more names of men. In lists in which the men were especially famous, people thought there were more names of men, whereas in lists in which the women were more famous, people thought there were more names ofwomen.120 During the SARS scare, Americans perceived terrorism to be a far greater threat to themselves...

Terrorism

A terrorist attack can occur anywhere, any time, perpetrated by a small cell without any links to foreign commands or international financial transfers. Many attempts have been made to poison water resources, not just since 9 11. The main result of such an event is not just the cases of mortality or morbidity, but the panic caused. An extreme case of panic could cause mass infection by people evading quarantine spreading the infection nationally or even globally (cp. SARS and Avian flu). There are three broad types of risk

Lassa Fever

In 2004, it would be surprising if any physician or nurse could recognize Lassa fever in its early stages as symptoms are nonspecific. The only clue was travel in West Africa. In both cases influenza, malaria, and typhoid fever were suspected, and before a firm diagnosis was made, both patients experienced respiratory failure and death. Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola share a common pathogenic attribute the ability to disable their host ' s immune response by attacking and destroying the cells that normally would initiate the antiviral response. Viruses engulfed by defending macrophages become virus replication factories, and with virus expulsion, the virions spread to regional lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. Infection of liver cells (hepatocytes) impairs function of blood clotting mechanisms edema ensues with loss of sodium and severe reduction of blood pressure. Currently there is no effective cure once the virus spreads to major systems. Although Marburg and Ebola are members of the...

Obesity

Obesity can no longer be regarded as a cosmetic problem, but must be seen as a new pandemic that threatens worldwide well-being. What is obesity For an answer, dictionaries are to no avail as they speak only of excess weight. Obesity goes beyond excess weight, which raises a second question How fat is too fat For Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), the great Flemish painter, there was no too fat. Rubens was the master of rotund femininity. As shown in Figure 1.10 , the fatter, the healthier, the more beautiful. But that was then. Today, obesity is our number 1 malnutrition problem, and a major contributor to numerous deaths. It has replaced under nutrition and infectious disease as the most significant contribution to poor health 58 .

Susceptibility

Genetic Certain diseases can only affect animals and when they are transmitted to man, they are not able to establish themselves. An example is Plasmodium berghei, the rodent malaria parasite, which cannot produce disease in man although closely related to the human malaria parasite. However, some newly emergent diseases have succeeded in crossing this genetic barrier, such as HIV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Technoapocalypticism

In the 1990s anxieties grew about the potential for terrorists to use recombinant bioengineering to create new bioweapons, especially as bioweapon research in the former Soviet Union came to light. In response to these threats the Clinton administration and US Congress started major bioterrorism preparedness initiatives in the 1990s, despite warnings from public health advocates such as Laurie Garrett (1994, 2000) that monies would be far better spent on global public health initiatives to prevent, detect, and combat emerging infectious diseases. After 9 11 the Bush administration, motivated in part by the millennial expectations of both the religious Right and secular neo-conservatives, focused even more attention on the prevention of relatively low probability low lethality bioterrorism than on the higher probability lethality prospects of emerging infectious diseases such pandemic flu. Arguably apocalyptic fears around bioterrorism, combined with the influence of the...

Catastrophe

Whatever the precise wording of the Precautionary Principle, worst-case scenarios, and the threat of catastrophic harm, lie at the heart of countless discussions about how to deal with hazards to safety, health, and the environment. For terrorism, hurricanes, war, ozone depletion, avian flu, and climate change, potential catastrophe plays a large role in private and public behavior. Many people urge a kind of One Percent Doctrine for all of these risks. They want to know If there is a 1 percent risk that a military squadron will be destroyed in some battle, shouldn't we take extra steps to protect our soldiers If there is a small chance of a devastating hurricane in a major city in the United States, shouldn't the government do a lot to protect its citizens If we cannot exclude the possibility of a serious outbreak of the avian flu in Europe, shouldn't European governments be acting, right now, to eliminate that possibility principle specify answers to three key issues the threshold...