Figure 6(b). Same as Fig. 5(a) except that the values of 90% and 95% are switched.

wind speed used in computing the surface sensible and latent fluxes is fixed at 5m/s everywhere. Because curve B has been eliminated, the ITCZ is located at the equator. A further experiment shows that radiation can have impact on the ITCZ location through its effect on N2 and in turn on curve B. Different radiation packages lead to different amounts of forcing for the cumulus convection, resulting in differing convective systems of different intensity. This further means different magnitudes of surface winds and thus different heights for curve B.

The above interpretation of the abrupt ITCZ latitudinal movement may be expanded to explain monsoon onset. Chao and Chen (2001b) argued that a monsoon is no more than an ITCZ sufficiently removed from the equator during its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. This movement is not completely smooth; there can be a sudden large shift away from the equator, which can be interpreted as a monsoon onset (Chao, 2000; Chao and Chen, 2001a). This concept also led to the argument that a monsoon is an ITCZ after it suddenly shifts away from the equator and it does not have to rely on land-sea thermal contrast for its existence (Chao and Chen, 2001b.)

The location of the ITCZ is obviously also influenced by land-sea distribution of the globe and by ocean-atmosphere interaction, which makes the subject more complex and interesting than it would be otherwise. The reader is referred to Philander et al. (1996) and Xie and Saito (2001) about these additional factors.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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