Annulus experiments

The various flow regimes in annulus experiments show a considerable amount of overlap in the regime diagram (Lorenz, 1967; Holton, 2004)

and the transition among them is often quite abrupt.

Transition to turbulence

Routes to turbulence have many catastrophes.

Martian polar warming

The stratospheric sudden warming mechanism reviewed in Sec. 3 has been used to explain Martian polar warming (Barnes and Hollingsworth, 1987).

Onset of Martian dust storms

Dust storms lasting months can engulf nearly the whole Martian atmosphere within weeks of their onset. Their growth is explosive and certainly fits the description of a catastrophe. There have been attempts to explain this growth as a catastrophe, but no consensus has been reached (Fernandez, 1997).

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