Aquaponics Projects For Beginners
One of China's responses to land and water shortages has been to vigorously expand aquacultural output, taking advantage of this grain-efficient form of animal protein. Although fish farming goes back some 3,000 years in China, annual aquacultural output did not reach 1 million tons until 1981, shortly after the 1978 economic reforms. It then began to expand rapidly, climbing from 1 million tons in 1981 to 28 million tons in 2002.21 China's fast-growing aquacultural sector totally dominates world aquaculture. Indeed, as of 2002, China produced 28 million tons out of the world aquacultural output of 40 million tons, accounting for more than two thirds of the global total.22 Within China, the area used for aquaculture production, both fresh water and offshore, totals some 6.8 million hectares roughly the size of Ireland or West Virginia. This area consists of farm-built ponds reservoirs, including many smaller ones used for water storage and the offshore areas occupied by cages. China...
The traditional response to rising seafood demand has been to raise fish in concrete tanks near inland water sources or in huge nets in bays along the seacoast. This is already a very big business, producing about 40 percent of the fish consumed each year worldwide. But it has a whole host of unintended consequences. Diseases run rampant in such close quarters and have to be knocked back with massive doses of antibiotics. Fish that have been genetically altered to grow fast and otherwise thrive in crowded enclosures are escaping and polluting wild gene pools. Inland fish farms require expensive pumps and filters that have to operate continuously a power outage means a lost crop. And as anyone with an aquarium knows, fish are really dirty. A school of 200,000 salmon produce nitrogen and phosphorous that's equivalent to the sewage of a city of 20,000 people the pollution generated by so many fish in such a small space is fouling waters for miles around large shore-based farms. But the...
Until relatively recently, man has acted only as a hunter-gatherer in exploiting the oceans. Now, with fish stocks falling and fisheries failing, there is an upsurge in interest in farming the oceans. Freshwater aquaculture already plays a very important part and some estimates suggest that one in five fish that end up on the dinner plate is a farmed fish. Increases in total aquaculture production (freshwater and marine) have nearly doubled in the past 10 years with most of this due to freshwater culture.
Geothermal aquaculture (marine farming) uses naturally heated water to increase the growth of fish, shellfish, reptiles, and amphibians. This direct use of geothermal resources is growing as fossil fuel costs climb. In China, geothermal fish farms cover almost 2 million square meters. Eels and alligators are raised in Japan, while geothermal aquaculture in the United States (Idaho, Utah, Oregon, and California) grow catfish, trout, alligators, tilapia, and tropical fish for pet shops. In Iceland, the production of abalone may exceed 272 million annually.
Total withdrawals Public supply Rural domestic and livestock Self-supplied domestic Livestock and aquaculture Irrigation Industrial freshwater and saline. The USGS report found that freshwater accounted for 345.3 billion gallons per day, or 85 of total off-stream water withdrawals in 2000. Freshwater is used exclusively for public water supply, domestic self-supply (private wells), irrigation, livestock watering, and aquaculture. It is also an important source for thermoelectric power plants, industry, and mining. Most freshwater is obtained from surface water sources (rivers and lakes), as shown in Figure 9.2. Nearly all (98 ) of the saline water used in 2000 came from surface water sources. Far less saline water than freshwater was used in 2000. Only 15 of all water used was saline. Thermoelectric power plants are the largest user of saline water. They accounted for 96 of all saline water use in 2000. Again, most of this water was used and returned to the environment. Industry and...
Fisheries in the Antarctic region involve about 18 nations from around the world, including Russia, Ukraine, France, Chile, Argentina and Japan. The total reported catch of toothfish and icefish in 2005 2006 in the regulated Antarctic fishery was 19 890 tonnes, and the krill catch was 106 591 tonnes105. The krill fishery, which provides feed for aquaculture as well as human food and dietary supplements, is expanding - the krill catch for the 2006 2007 season is projected to be as high as 368 000 tonnes, tripled from the previous year10 .
Through the gasification treatment of crop straw, thermal efficiency in the context of direct burning of such straw can be enhanced from twenty percent to more than sixty percent.16 If all of the approximately 0.4 billion tonnes of animal excrement (dry matter) generated each year in rural and urban areas was processed into marsh gas, the annual output of marsh gas would reach 9 billion m3.17 The thermal efficiency of firewood is only approximately ten percent if traditional stoves are used, but if firewood-saving stoves are used, then thermal efficiency can be enhanced to twenty to thirty percent.18 Utilizing modern technology for the integrated utilization of biomass resources, crop straw can be used not only in paper making, the production of building materials and art wares, and used directly as feed and fertilizers, but can also be used to produce gaseous and liquid clean fuels, pellet feed, bacterial manures, a base stock of edible fungus, and green packaging materials. Animal...
71 See generally (accessed 18 January 2005) (accessed 18 January 2005) World Energy Assessment, at 260. Besides the generation of electricity, OTEC plants could be used for aquaculture, refrigeration, mineral extraction, and desalinated water crop irrigation and consumption.
Ecosystem changes, especially from deforestation, the infilling of wetlands and the replacement of coastal mangroves by aquaculture, may also have adverse effects on resource security, including through an interaction with rising seas and more intense storms. The flooding of the Yangtze river basin in 1998, in China, has been attributed to a complex web of factors, including heavy rain associated with an El Nino event, deforestation which increased water runoff, and more intensive cultivation of lakes and wetlands in the river basin which reduced their 'sponge' function. Changes have been called for in Chinese ecosystem management to try to avert such events in the future.89
Privatization has worked very well with some species of fish and shellfish. Aquaculture, or fish farming, protects many fish that previously were subject to overuse. Farmraised salmon account for about half (in 1996) of the world's salmon sales, which is an increase from 7 a decade ago.6 Most catfish sold in restaurants and fish markets are raised in private ponds. Clearly, some fish and animals are easier than others to own and protect.
The Brundtland Report defined ecologically sustainable development as 'development which meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs'. Various other definitions have been offered in national and state legislation. One of the most comprehensive is that in the Aquaculture Act 2001 (SA), s 4
Aquaculture Some wetlands are created artificially. These are used for aquaculture or for filtering and purifying sludge and sewage from cities and industrial processes. Although these can serve as environmental buffers for plants and animals, they just don't support the same variety of life found in natural ecosystems. Mangroves in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America have been impacted or destroyed for firewood, rice fields, and aquaculture. India, the Philippines, and Thailand have lost over 80 of their mangrove forests. Bangladesh, Ghana, Pakistan, Somalia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Mozambique have all lost over 60 of their mangroves.
Control and prevention Control is by the proper cooking of fish. Members of the carp family (Cyprinidae), the so-called 'milk fish', are eaten raw as a delicacy. They are grown in fish farms as part of a system of aquaculture, fertilized by human faeces. Regulation of this practice is required to reduce this unpleasant infection. Other foods, such as fish paste often added to food after it has been cooked to improve the taste, are made from raw fish and are a potent source of infection.
Recent 1990s technology has seen the development of prototype 'fish factories' which aim to mass-produce both seawater and freshwater fish. These 'biosystems' are closed units which function on a very efficient re-cycling of seawater and so can be situated well away from the coast on normal industrial estates. The system is being developed by the Danish Institute of Aquaculture Technology and is already producing freshwater eels. Commercial production of marine species such as cod is in development and may well become a reality in future years.
And bran of grain crops, such as wheat, paddy rice, corn, sorghum, cotton, and soybean. Animal excrement includes the excrement of livestock and poultry, whether or not they are fed in pens, as well as sludge in aquaculture ponds. Waste residues of agricultural products include the waste residues from industrial processing of grain crops, oil crops, and sugar crops, such as distillers' grains, bean cakes, and bagasse. 4. as fertilizer, for example, crop straw, animal excrement, and sludge in aquaculture ponds can be used as agricultural fertilizers or be used to produce organic fertilizer products, such as bacterial manure and microelement fertilizers, for special use through innocuous and industrialized processing
The most noticeable effect of this intensive aquaculture, though, is the development of algal blooms in summer months because of the presence of high concentrations of phosphorus. This nutrient chemical is discharged into the loch in the waste from the fish and from the decomposing waste feed. In 1989-92, the concentration of total phosphorus exceeded 100 pg l which, according to the classification of waters for eutrophic status (see Table 7), puts Loch Fad into the hypertrophic class.
The 2001 TAR assessment of vulnerability in Asia shows that the region is potentially more susceptible to climate change than are some other regions of the world (IPCC Working Group II 2001 see also IPCC 1997).6 It concludes that the developing countries of Asia are highly vulnerable to climate change, and their adaptability is low. (Developed countries of the region (e.g. Japan) are of course less vulnerable because they are more able to adapt to climate change.) Floods, forest fires, cyclones, droughts and other extreme events have increased in temperate and tropical Asia. The TAR anticipates that while agricultural productivity could increase in northern parts of Asia, food security would suffer in arid, tropical, and temperate Asia due to reduced agricultural and aquaculture productivity from warmer water, sea-level rise, floods, droughts, and cyclones. Water availability may decrease in arid and semi-arid Asia and possibly increase in northern Asia, and increased incidence of...
Land-Use Changes Decrease of usable land for various aspects of primary production, including aquaculture, and for activities such as salt-making arises from the joint effects of subsidence due to river modification and sea level rise. It is generally counteracted by dikes and other diversions. While counteracting measures are not feasible, these changes can lead to large land and livelihood losses. In developed countries, lowland protection against sea level rise will be costly. In developing countries without adequate technical and capital resources, it may be impossible.
Even if the capture fishing industry optimized its effort, whatever resource rent it earned would be ephemeral. Capture fisheries must compete with aquaculture, which offers lower costs, reliable year-round supplies at huge volumes, uniform and consistent quality, just-in-time delivery, traceability, proximity to markets, and virtually every other competitive advantage imaginable. By the year 2030, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, aquaculture will dominate fish supplies and less than half of the fish consumed is likely to originate in capture fisheries. 57 Aquaculture accounts for over a third of the fish humans consume, and over the next two decades, according to the Washington Post, fish farming will largely replace the last commercial food-gathering system based on hunting wild animals. 58 closed-system, highly capitalized industrial aquaculture, controlled -as the hog and poultry industries are controlled - by a few multinational corporations. It is hard to see...
Total water consumption is about 60 km3 in Hungary today. The largest part of this is evaporation and transpiration. Human water demand comprises the industrial and communal water (4.5 + 1 km3), aquaculture and irrigation need about 0.5 km3 water. Additionally, glasshouse and ornamental plant production requires 0.1-0.2 km3 of irrigation water. Unfortunately, the use of wastewater is not satisfactory and not well measured. The use of subsurface water by root systems and wells is important, but not very accurately estimated, because most wells operate without any permission.
Ozone is toxic to all forms of life and can be used only very sparingly in the continuous treatment of rivers and lakes. Ozone is used to control the quality of water in aquaculture. In this application, it sterilizes the water before it is allowed into the tanks used to grow the fish. Ozone completely kills all bacteria, viruses, parasite eggs, and fungus spores. In aquaculture, it is far more effectively than chlorine. Unlike chlorine that makes the water salty ozone decomposes to useful oxygen. With properly control, it is a preferred method of protecting fish from waterborne disease. It has also been used to aid in controlling the spread of Zebra Mussels.238
Worldwide, after centuries of steady growth, the total catch of wild fish peaked in the early 1990s and has declined ever since. In State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2004 (http www.fao.org sof sofia index_ en.htm), the FAO reported that just over 50 of all commercial fish stocks have been fully exploited. A further 25 of stocks were reported to be overexploited.
Review of the state of world aquaculture, Rome. Fang, J., A. Chen, C. Peng, S. Zhao and L. Ci. 2001. Changes in forest biomass Naylor, R. L., R. Goldburg, J. H. Primavera, J. Clay, N. Kautsky, M. C. M. Beveridge, J. Clay, C. Folke, J. Lubchenco, H. Mooney and M. Troell. 2000. Effect of Aquaculture on World Fish Supplies. Nature 405 1017-1024. Seto, K. C., R. K. Kaufmann and C. E. Woodcock. 2000. Landsat reveals China's
That steadily rose to 36.1 kilograms per person in 1997. The same is true for the amount of fish caught in the wild, which jumped from about 7.5 kilograms in 1950 to 15 kilograms in 1965, where it has remained since then. Another source of fish is aquaculture, which steadily rose in production from about 7 million tons in 1984 to 23 million tons in 1996 (see figure 6-5). Clearly there is no trend toward hunger in the world when it comes to food production. Contrary to the fears of many writers of the past, we are able to produce enough food to feed everyone. 6-5. Production offish from aquaculture.
Another characteristic of globalization is that state authority is increasingly being challenged by new actors such as non-governmental organizations, multi- and trans-national corporations, and world commodity markets. This interdependency means that decision-making and social systems in one region of the world can impact land use, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning in another region. For example, international demand for shrimp has driven an increase in shrimp production in China and other East Asian countries. The conversion of coastal and inland ecosystems for aquaculture has contributed to numerous changes in the environmental subsystem, including loss of biotic diversity, intensification of the biogeochemical cycles, and re-allocation of water.
One of the problems of marine fish farming is to find suitable sources of fish food. During their early stages of growth, fish larvae require very small food particles and some take only live food. This need for bulk production of suitable planktonic foods adds to the other problems of fish farming. Even if live food is not essential, minced fish and similar finely divided foods are very prone to bacterial contamination and consequent detrimental effects. There is some hope that the invention of microcapsules as artificial food particles may prove to be a useful contribution to aquaculture. Precise mixtures of food materials suited to the requirements of particular organisms can now be encapsulated within artificial membranes, producing particles of controlled composition and size, some of which are readily accepted as food by certain small organisms or by filter feeders (Jones et al, 1974 1979).
One of the innovative responses to China's growing demand for animal protein is the development of the world's most advanced aquacultural sector. At the heart of this effort is the highly efficient carp polyculture pioneered by the Chinese and described in Chapter 3, which enabled Chinese fish farmers to produce more than 15 million tons of freshwater fish in 2002. For China, this emphasis on the highly efficient production of animal protein is another positive step and an example for other countries to follow.51
Harvested by cronies of the dictator Suharto, backed by his military forces. Great environmental degradation was also being caused by the construction and operation of a huge liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant, again backed by the power of the government and a multinational corporation. These activities led to intense local resentment because people were displaced from their homes and their agricultural and aquacultural activities were disrupted. That resentment drove the Acehnese to rebellion in 1976. The revolt was swiftly put down, but a second uprising in the late 1980s resulted in an army campaign of torture and rape and the killing of more than a thousand civilians. Fighting between rebels and the government has continued, with thousands of deaths, despite intermittent truces. As recently as May 2003, a government offensive was launched with the goal of wiping out the rebels.50 The guerillas' major target is the LNG plant operated by the ExxonMobil Corporation. It has been...
A recently identified problem concerns the use of anti-fouling paints containing the organotin, tri-butyl-tin (TBT). The use of paints containing TBT has been banned since 1987 in the UK for boats under 25 metres long and for aquaculture equipment. TBT is still in use for larger boats and can also enter the marine environment when ships' hulls are stripped and re-painted. TBT causes various deformities in molluscs and had such a bad effect on oyster farming that the UK industry practically collapsed. In dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), it causes a condition known as imposex, where females develop male sexual characteristics and breeding is impaired. Dogwhelks live for 5 to 6 years and spend all their lives on the same stretch of shore. They are therefore very good indicators of TBT pollution and were used as such when the case for banning TBT was being investigated.
Okay, so why not farm the oceans the way we do the land True, we would have to take over a few natural ecosystems, but it would be more efficient than catching and disrupting wild populations. Or would it It turns out that if aquaculture is practiced responsibly, it can compensate for the decline in fish available to be caught in the wild. Indeed, the contribution of farmed fish to the worldwide consumption of seafood doubled in the decade between 1987 and 1997. But ecosystem disruption is still a part of the game, just as in land-based agriculture.11 In ecology there is a strange term called TANSTAAFL. It stands for the old adage There ain't no such thing as a free lunch. It applies to our hopes for getting enough protein out of aquaculture to supply our substantial human population. Here's why the farmed fish have to have something to eat too. Their food sources ultimately come from the phytoplankton in the ocean, and thus reduce the food available for wild coastal populations....
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