The Power of Positive Affirmations
Between these two extremes lie the majority ofthe other key players in the negotiations, with the United States (US) situated towards the more intransigent end of the scale and the European Union (EU) towards the more proactive end. While the EU has a more positive attitude towards action on climate change than the US, there are notable divisions among the member countries. Germany, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian states have taken a far more forthright stance on the issue than the countries of Southern Europe and Ireland (OECD 1994). The Netherlands and Germany, for example, have continually tried to impress upon the rest of the EU the importance of introducing a Europe-wide carbon tax, against the resistance of the United Kingdom (UK) and Southern European states (EC Energy Monthly February 1996). There is to some degree a split between the countries of Northern and Southern Europe, with those in the North generally being more able to act on the issue of climate change and...
Transposed onto the patterns of policy change within the Green parties, Burns' hypothesis appears to support the reprioritization of party goals suggested in previous chapters of this book. For Miljopartiet de Grona, party policy change has clearly been strongly influenced by external factors, in line with its increasing emphasis upon electoral goals. However, it would be wrong to presume that the Swedish Greens would be prepared to radically alter their policy base purely for electoral considerations. If this had been the case, rather than continuing with an anti-EU stance, the party would logically have adopted a more positive attitude given the support for membership identified during the early 1990s.
While these technical difficulties with model validation occupy much of the modelling literature, some more fundamental philosophical issues have caught the attention of modelling critics. Philosophers of science have long noted that the logical problem of induction makes it impossible to validate a model in the everyday sense of establishing the truth and accuracy of its hypotheses. Unlike the formal analytical language of equations, such as '2 + 2 4', whose truth is defined by a closed system of internal logic that can be tested through verification (in the sense of above), a model's empirical claims pertain to open systems, and so must face the logical problem of induction just because every previous time you've seen someone with an umbrella it has been raining, does not give you a purely logical basis for making the inductive inference that if you see her again with an umbrella, it must therefore be raining. To do so is to commit the fallacy of affirming the consequent, because as...
The duty of states to ensure sustainable use of natural resources. While, in accordance with international law, all states have the sovereign right to use their own natural resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, they are also under a duty to manage natural resources, including natural resources within their own territory or jurisdiction, in a rational, sustainable, and safe way so as to contribute to the development of their peoples and to the conservation and the protection of the environment, including ecosystems. States must take into account the needs of future generations. The Declaration stresses that all relevant actors, including states, industrial concerns, and other components of civil society are under a duty to avoid wasteful use of natural resources and promote waste minimization policies. One may add that the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea18 already imposed on states the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment...
Table 4.4 Explanations of a positive attitude towards increases in the CO2 tax on petrol Changes in probabilities for a discrete change of dummy variable from 0 to 1, evaluated at sample mean, based on logit estimation Table 4.4 Explanations of a positive attitude towards increases in the CO2 tax on petrol Changes in probabilities for a discrete change of dummy variable from 0 to 1, evaluated at sample mean, based on logit estimation First, it is clear that there are factors other than trust that are more important in terms of the size of the effect. Measured by changes in probabilities of having a positive attitude, the effects (when looking at model 1 of whether one believes that taxes are an effective way of changing people's behaviours, the Green party dimension, access to a car, and people with high education) are stronger than trust in politicians in terms of size. Thus, lack of trust in politicians should be added to the list of other factors contributing to a fuller...
A rather detailed analysis of these matters was published by the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) 24 . Its study affirmed the obligation of each generation to future generations (trustee principle), in particular not to deprive future generations of the opportunity for a quality of life comparable to its own (sustainability principle). This obligation is somewhat qualified by an affirmation of the obligation to the living and near-future generations, with priority to be given to near-term concrete hazards over long-term hypothetical hazards (chain of obligation principle). Risking irreversible or catastrophic harm should be avoided unless there is some compelling countervailing need (precautionary principle).
In this conceptual framework, government is not simply a corrective instrument at the margins of economic markets but a central arena in which the members of society choose and legitimize their collective values. The principal purposes of legislative action are to weigh and affirm social values and to define and enforce the rights and duties of members of the society, through representative democracy. The purpose of administrative action is to put into effect these affirmations by the legislature, not to rebalance them by the criteria of economic theory.5
188.8.131.52 Positive Attitude towards Globalization CSR being a global phenomenon is easy to communicate with many Finnish managers and executives who strikingly have a very strong positive stance on globalization. Iloniemi's report (1998) confirms this positive attitude of Finnish company executives towards globalization issues. According to Iloniemi (1999), as much as 93 of company executives surveyed consider globalization as an extremely important factor for successful business in the future. The effect of this positive thinking towards globalization is favorable in the development of CSR in companies involved in this study. Such global thinking finds these Finnish companies supporting and promoting global CSR initiatives (e.g., Global Compact, Sullivan Principles, and SA8000). However, such an attitude may be overrated as well, in the sense that it is hard to know how it really is in practice. It could be that it is too easy to acknowledge and present a positive attitude towards...
How does this picture square with the three potential major shortcomings to behavioural changes that were proposed in Chapter 1 lack of knowledge, lack of motivation and lack of organizational and legal structures 1 Lack of knowledge does not stand out as the prime obstacle. Rather, people are receptive to information, and research also shows a positive attitude among the general public towards behavioural changes in a more pro-environmental direction (see also, for example, Franzen, 2003). However, knowledge and positive attitudes do not in themselves motivate people to make drastic changes in their life patterns. People may not only be guided by egoistic rather than collective or altruistic motives. Routine decision-making procedures may also preclude new motives. Although decision-making bodies at the international level sign agreements in order to promote environmental policies, the implementation of these policies at the local level is easier said than done. Decision-makers have...
While concern for the human habitat and ideologies affirming the vital link between mother earth and the humans species have had a long history and a constant appeal, the past three decades have witnessed a surge in an awareness that humanity is inflicting on itself permanent and possibly irretrievable environmental damage. This series of books on the politics of the environment aims to provide the information and the perspective needed for an understanding of this predicament, of the anxieties to which it has given rise, and of the steps that are being taken at national and international level to address the problems that it poses.
The occurrence of local resistance towards planned wind farms is often referred to as an important obstacle to increased wind power capacity in Sweden and elsewhere. Fears of visual intrusion, noise and land devaluation often explain these negative opinions. However, in spite of the existence of local opposition, the experiences in Sweden (and in many other countries) are that lay people generally express a positive attitude towards wind power (e.g. Krohn and Damborg, 1999 Ek, 2005). For this reason, the occurrence of local resistance towards wind power development is often explained by the so-called not in my backyard (NIMBY) syndrome.8 This explanation has, however, been criticized for being too simplistic (e.g. Wolsink, 2000). Local resistance may, instead, often express suspicion towards the people or the company who want to install the turbines or a rejection of the process underlying the decision to build new plants, rather than a rejection of the turbines themselves. Results...
Bringing greenhouse gas emissions down to a fraction of current levels will take an ongoing worldwide effort that engages all nations and touches all lives. We can fail to slash emissions, or fail even to try. We can try risky geoengineering schemes or simply hope to brave the heat and storms to come. Or we can adopt a positive attitude about preventing future emissions and adapting collectively to past ones, and we can get to work.
Some extracts from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed by over countries in Rio de Janeiro
AFFIRMING that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking into full account the legitimate priority needs of developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty.
Other common programs at the stated and Federal level, include direct payments (such as through grants or awards) and government purchase of these technologies. These mechanisms generally require continuing budgetary support, which may be provided from a dedicated revenue source, or may require periodic affirmation in appropriations process.
In addition, several cases have confirmed the role of the judicial branch of the U.S. government in reviewing the substance of the agency decisions. Affirmation of this judicial role came in the Gillham Dam case, in which the Court of Appeals concluded that there is a judicial responsibility to make sure that an agency has not acted arbitrarily and capriciously in making decisions affected by NEPA (Environmental Quality, 1973).
For the reasons already outlined, the nuclear power industry looked moribund at the end of the twentieth century in all but a handful of Asian countries. The twenty-first century has brought new hope. Against all expectations, nuclear power plants in the USA are often faring well in the deregulated electricity market and their value is increasing. This may encourage a more positive attitude towards nuclear plants within the financial sector there.
What does this mean for the likely environmental effects Generally speaking, environmental scientists take a very positive attitude towards services, based on the idea that the material component in services is smaller than in products. However, in another study we showed that this relationship is not so straightforward (Nijhuis et al., 2000). After all, services often also need products (for example, computers when we are talking about e-commerce), and since people have to do the work there is often a significant transport component involved in getting the service providers to the client.
I think the media could play a major role by having a positive attitude towards using the trains. . Because what the media has done so far is to .encourage people to avoid the trains and I think it's the wrong attitude. We give up and we hide ourselves and give the space to the intruders. I think the media should reverse this attitude and tell the people to protect themselves but go ahead and not be hiding. We are the many, we are the people who should fight them and we should go out in masses and show body, not hide.
Given global and national energy policies and a positive attitude among the general public, the prospect of wind power development in Sweden should be favourable. However, this has so far not been the case, and local governance seems to throw a spanner in the works. In Chapter 7, Soderholm et al point out two factors that primarily contribute to this slow progress. First, those who object to installations at the local level, mostly for aesthetic environmental reasons, enjoy strong legal protection. Second, the municipality has a monopoly on physical planning within its territory and thus constitutes a formidable 'veto point'. As a result, national environmental and energy policy goals may not be promoted on the local level.
Soon after he arrived in West Germany, Bahro became involved with the nascent German Greens (Die Gruen), affirming that 'red and green go well together',2 and urged communist groups to dissolve themselves and work within the Die Gruen. As such he was strongly identified with the 'eco-socialist' wing of the Green movement, arguing for a synthesis of green and socialist ideals and aims. He was clear that such a rapprochement required the critical reconstruction of socialist politics, a central aspect of which was a rejection of the productivist and 'materialist abundance' dimensions of Marxist socialism, and the emergence of what Bahro called a 'historical compromise' between the labour movement and new social movements (environmental, feminist, peace), and a rejection of Marxist 'class politics' and proletarian revolution. While a resolute critique of capitalism and consumerism, Bahro's view (which had much in common with Antonio Gramsci's 'anti-hegemony' political strategy) was that...
Donald Worster writes, 'The Romantic approach to nature was fundamentally ecological that is, it was concerned with relation, interdependence and holism.'3 For Wordsworth, these three concepts are as much psychological as ecological, a key correspondence in Wordsworth's most significant contribution to environmental thought his steps to an ecology of mind and feeling. Indeed, in Somersetshire, his sense of the organic wholeness of nature appears to have grown out of his sense of a need for personal wholeness (whole hale health). However, as some critics suggest, Wordsworth's recovery was rather an escape from awkward political and personal responsibilities than an affirmation of an intrinsic wholeness in nature itself.4 Nonetheless, rather than undermining
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Positive Thinking As The Key To Success
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