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Electricity Freedom System Review

Electricity Freedom System Review

How To Unleash Your Most Awesome Self

How To Unleash Your Most Awesome Self

Solar Power Design Manual

Solar Power Design Manual

Ultimate Energy Freedom

Ultimate Energy Freedom

The Ultimate Energizer Guide Review

The Ultimate Energizer Guide Review

The Amazing Stockpiling Challenge Review

The Amazing Stockpiling Challenge Review

Life Miracle Magnetic Laundry System Review

Life Miracle Magnetic Laundry System Review

Crypto Coin Rankings Crypto Formula that finds Winning Signals Review

Crypto Coin Rankings Crypto Formula that finds Winning Signals Review

Alive after the Fall Review

Alive after the Fall Review

Power Efficiency Guide Review

Power Efficiency Guide Review

The Lost Ways 2 Review

The Lost Ways 2 Review

Spec Ops Bushcrafting Review

Spec Ops Bushcrafting Review

Articles

4 Types Of Sand Dunes

Four Types Sand Dunes

Most people think of sand dunes when they hear the word dune. However, a dune is any landmass created by deposited material that forms a low mound or ridge of sediment. Dunes can be formed by sediments of different sizes or even snow. They are formed when wind blows sediments, mostly from the same direction, until it encounters an obstruction of some sort. The wind slows and drops the heavier particles, which then build up and add to the size of the original obstruction. This becomes a cycle,...

If Global Temperatures Rose six degrees What Would Happen

Climate models, cited in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC Third Assessment Report, projected that global temperatures could rise by as much as 10.4 F 5.8 C by the end of the twenty-first century. To find out what would happen if the world warmed by that much, journalist Mark Lynas read thousands of scientific papers dealing with how climate change affected life on Earth in the past. The result of his work was a book entitled Six Degrees. An increase of one degree would bring about...

The Sporer Minimum Dalton Minimum and Maunder Minimum

Then, in 1889, Maunder read an article by another German astronomer, Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Sporer 1822-95 . Sporer was also studying sunspots and he had discovered something very interesting. Astronomers had been observing and recording sunspot activity for centuries, but Sporer found that very few had been observed between approximately 1400 and 1520. This period came to be known as the Sporer Minimum. It was a time of very cold weather. People called it a Little Ice Age. The Baltic Sea...

Methanol Storage and Distribution

Methanol Cost

In parallel to the development of methanol-fueled vehicles, a widespread distribution network for methanol will have to be established to make it as easily available for the consumer as are petroleum-based fuels today. While the passage from ICE to fuel cell-powered methanol vehicles represents a radical technological change, the development of a fueling infrastructure to fuel them is not. Refueling stations dispensing methanol will be almost identical to today's fueling stations, reflecting...

Open and closed cycle ocean thermal energy conversion

Closed Cycle Otec System

The siting of an OTEC plant, either onshore or offshore, represents one of the key decision for any proposed project. The other key decision is the type of cycle to use. There are two principle options, an open cycle plant or a closed cycle plant. Hybrids of the two have also been proposed. A closed cycle OTEC plant employs a thermodynamic fluid such as ammonia or a refrigerant like freon. This is contained in a completely closed system including the plant turbine. Hot surface seawater is used...

Combined cycle power plants

Solar Power Plant Block Diagram

A single gas turbine connected to a generator can generate electricity with a fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of perhaps 38 using the best of today's technology. New developments, such as those falling under the auspices of the US DOE's ATS programme aim to push the simple cycle efficiency as high as 41 without cycle adaptation, 43 with adaptation such as recuperation. This is still marginally lower than a modern coal-fired power plant can hope to achieve. Part of the reason for this...

Classification of Communicable Diseases

No biological system is perfect and communicable diseases in particular are not readily classified however, any grouping makes it easier to understand and remember, so the objective of this short chapter is to look at the different ways this can be done. A disease is a morbid condition of the body (e.g. measles or plague). As the cause of diseases were discovered, they became identified by the causative organism, such as trypanosomiasis or pneumococcal meningitis, but confusion arose because...

Acknowledgments For Air Pollution

I would like to thank, above all, the scientists who have dedicated their lives to the study of the Earth, especially those engaged in the important work of understanding how human activities are impacting the planet. Many thanks to the staff of Facts On File and Chelsea House for their guidance and editing expertise Frank Darmstadt, Executive Editor Brian Belval, Senior Editor and Leigh Ann Cobb, independent developmental editor. Dr. Tobi Zausner located the color images that illustrate our...

Electrolysis of Water

Alkaline Electrolysis Stack

Personally, I think that 400 years hence the power question in England may be solved somewhat as follows. The country will be covered with rows of metallic windmills working electric motors, which in their turn supply current at a very high voltage to great electric mains. At suitable distances there will be great power stations where during windy weather the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen In times of calm, the gases will be...

European Settlement of the Great Plains

The main settlement of the Great Plains occurred after the 1840 migrations to Oregon and the 1849 Gold Rush to California. Environmental historian William Cronon has interpreted the history of the Great Plains in terms of narrative. The grand narrative of America, Cronon argues, is a story of progress. The frontier narrative depicts that formative story and, as such, is the master narrative of American culture. A hostile environment, initially conceptualized as a Great American desert, was...

Lapse rate and the greenhouse effect

The steeper the lapse rate, the stronger the greenhouse effect. If the atmosphere were incompressible like water, and convection maintained a uniform temperature with Fig. 5.10 The layer model from Chapter 3 as it might look if we were to include convection. Convection carries heat vertically in the atmosphere, supplementing the heat carried by radiation. If we were to add convection to the layer model, it would require a few new arrows. Fig. 5.10 The layer model from Chapter 3 as it might look...

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reactors

We have been tacitly assuming that the reactors under consideration are what are sometimes known as heterogeneous, in which the fuel, coolant, and moderator if any are distinct physical entities. All reactors used today for power generation are of this form. However, in the early days of nuclear power, there was considerable exploration of an alternative configuration, the homogeneous reactor, defined as a reactor whose small-scale composition is uniform and isotropic 2, p. 378 . Homogeneity...

Terrestrial radiation and the greenhouse effect

About one-half of the solar radiation reaching the upper edge of the Earth's atmosphere is ultimately absorbed by the Earth's surface see Fig. 2.3 . The longwave infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface has an important role in the climate system because it provides the largest quantitative energy input to the atmosphere. Atmospheric gases that are transparent to shortwave solar radiation are largely opaque to longwave terrestrial radiation that occurs at wavelengths greater than 4.0...

Heat islands and urban domes

Lysocline Layer

Air escaping from heated buildings, atmospheric particles absorbing infrared radiation at night, the reduction in wind speed, and the heat from thousands of engines combine to make the city into an island of warmth surrounded by a cool, rural sea. It is a heat island. During the day the temperature rises rapidly. On a sunny day in summer it may rise by as much as 31 F 17 C between dawn and the middle of the afternoon. It falls again at night, but in the early part of the night the city center...

Thermal Analysis Of Flatplate Collectors

Tilted Flat Plate Collector

In this section, the thermal analysis of the collectors is presented. The two major types of collectors, flat plate and concentrating, are examined separately. The basic parameter to consider is the collector thermal efficiency. This is defined as the ratio of the useful energy delivered to the energy incident on the collector aperture. The incident solar flux consists of direct and diffuse radiation. While flat-plate collectors can collect both, concentrating collectors can utilize direct...

The rationale for organic and local foods

Organic production refers to agriculture which does not use artificial chemical fertilisers and pesticides, and animals reared in more natural conditions, without the routine use of drugs, antibiotics and wormers common in intensive livestock farming. Consumer demand for organic produce has risen enormously over the last 15 years in the UK, growing from a niche activity to a mainstream consumption choice Smith, 2006 . Sales of organic products in the UK amounted to 1.213 billion in 2004, a rise...

Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Diesel Fuels Substitute in Compression Ignition Engines

Japanese Volvo Bus Images

Methanol, when combusted, does not produce smoke, soot or particulates. Parti-culate matter - whether carcinogenic compounds are absorbed onto them, or not - have been identified as a significant health hazard, especially in large cities. Diesel fuel generally produces particles during combustion. This, and the fact that methanol produces very low emissions of NOx because it burns at lower temperatures, makes methanol attractive as a substitute for diesel fuel 123 . Diesel engines are quite...

Statistical Meteorology

Numerical weather prediction was not the only forecasting technique to face opposition in the 1950s. Meteorologists who advocated the use of statistics as a prediction tool also confronted significant opposition from their synoptic meteorology colleagues. The synopticians those meteorologists who met the daily challenge of preparing weather forecasts viewed statistical methods with virtually the same disdain with which they had viewed the dynamic meteorology of Vilhelm Bjerknes some 50 years...

Oceanic And Atmospheric Circulation Patterns

Circulation Rotating Earth

More than half of the solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is absorbed by the oceans, where it is stored and redistributed, before being released back into the atmosphere. Ocean and atmosphere are quite intimately linked. The prevailing winds in the atmospheric circulation, for example, drive water across the ocean surface at speeds of less than 5 km per hour, in the form of broad, relatively shallow drifts. In some cases, they carry warm water polewards, in others, they carry cooler...

The Effects Of Acid Rain On Forests And Agriculture

Sulfuric and nitric acids are detrimental to all plant life. Even if the soil is well-buffered, forests can be damaged by acid fog. Acid deposition of all sorts ruins the waxy coatings of leaves, harming the tree's ability to exchange water and gases with the atmosphere. Trees weakened by acid experience slower growth or injury and are more vulnerable to stresses such as pests or drought. Acid-damaged plants are easily identified the leaves of leafy plants turn yellow, and damaged pine needles...

The energy conversion chain

Tidal Power Simple Sankey Diagrams

Every time we use energy, whether it's to heat our home, or fuel our car, we are converting one form of energy into another form, or into useful work. In the case of home heating, we are taking the chemical energy available in natural gas, or fuel oil, and converting that into thermal energy, or heat, by burning it in a furnace. Or, when we drive our car, we are using the engine to convert the chemical energy in the gasoline into mechanical work to power the wheels. These are just two examples...

Overutilization Of Other Natural Resources

More nonfuel mineral resources have been consumed worldwide during the half century since the end of World War II than during all preceding human history Wellmer amp Kursten, 1992 . Whether this should be considered overutilization can be debated because estimates of remaining reserves are crude and have tended to increase along with consumption Hodges, 1995 . However, it seems clear that a rapidly accelerating rate of consumption cannot continue indefinitely, although projected population...

Stirling Solar Power Generators

Stirling Plant Engine

In addition to SEGS, ISCCS, PV, and updraft tower methods for collecting solar energy, Stirling solar dish systems are also used Figure 1.38 . These units focus the Sun's energy onto H2 in sealed Stirling engines. As the H2 is heated to 732 C 1,350 F , it expands and drives the pistons of the engine. Stirling engines are used on submarines because they are quiet no combustion takes place . In solar applications, their main advantage is their high efficiency 30 , which is nearly double that of...

Methanol from Biomass

Carbon Neutral Cycle Methanol

Although reserves of methane from natural gas are still very large, they are nevertheless finite and diminishing. The exploitation of unconventional natural gas resources and methane hydrates could significantly increase the amounts of methane available to mankind. Innovative processes continue to be explored for the transformation of methane into easy-to-handle liquid fuels, primarily methanol, but this will not solve the problem of increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and its...

Geography as a Positivist Science

Popper Falsification

Let us now discuss the question of geography's scientific status in earnest, adding substance to the sketch provided above. For the term 'science' has not just been a rhetorical weapon used by geographers it has also described specific ways of investigating reality. It is these ways I want now to explain in this and the next two sections before moving on to an assessment of geography's scientific credentials. I suggested above that the first substantive attempt to make geography a science was a...

The meaning and scope of energy law

The role of the law can be understood by considering the definition of 'energy law'. Energy law has been described as 'the allocation of rights and duties concerning the exploitation of all energy resources between individuals, between individuals and the government, between governments and between States'.91 The reference to 'energy resources' should not be seen as limited to the primary sources of energy, but should extend to secondary and substitute sources of energy. The most important...

Active solar water heating

As described in Chapter 2, passive solar water heating systems have the merits of simplicity and are usually reliable. These benefits, however, come at a price. The systems are inflexible in that they need the hot water storage or heat exchanger to be positioned above the solar collectors, and they are difficult to integrate with other forms of alternative energy technologies. Water-based active solar water heating systems use pumps to circulate the heat collection fluid between solar collector...

Mechanically assisted ventilation

Portcullis House Ventilation System

Rotating cowls was the system adopted by Michael Hopkins and Partners with Ove Arup and Partners in the Nottingham University Jubilee Campus Figure 12.9 . This ventilation system is the successor to Hopkins' and Arup's innovations at the Inland Revenue HQ also in Nottingham, and Portcullis House, Westminster. These led to a low pressure mechanical system linked to heat recovery via a thermal wheel which recovers 84 per cent of the exhaust heat. The mechanical system requires 51 000 kWh per year...

Queries On Solar Power Generated Stirling Engine

I'm confused In Chapter 6, you said that the best photovoltaic panels deliver 20 W m2 on average, in a place with British sunniness. Presumably in the desert the same panels would deliver 40 W m2. So how come the concentrating solar power stations deliver only 15-20 W m2 Surely concentrating power should be even better than plain flat panels Good question. The short answer is no. Concentrating solar power does not achieve a better power per unit land area than flat panels. The concentrating...

Soil Exhaustion in the Tobacco South

Craven, in Soil Exhaustion in the Agricultural History of Virginia and Maryland, 1606-1860 1926 , maintained that soil exhaustion and tobacco cultivation went hand in hand.10 Tobacco rapidly depleted the soil, hence luxuriant crops could be grown for only three or four years. Soon after planting, soil nutrients especially nitrogen and potassium began to decline and soil microorganisms created toxins that poisoned tobacco plants. Soil fungi and root rot resulted from continual...

Ranching in South Park

The first ranches in South Park were established soon after the first gold mining strikes in the 1850s. Fairplay became as much a ranching center as a mining center. The excellent grazing land in South Park is one of the primary reasons that cattle ranching became the most stable industry in the area. Hay grown in this area has been shipped as far away as Kentucky and even to England as feed for racehorses. The right of landowners having no access to streams to appropriate and divert water to...

The Antitoxics Movement

The antitoxics movement grew out of public attention to the pollution of Love Canal, a community near Niagara Falls, New York, in 1978. The main spokesperson was Lois Gibbs, whose son and daughter had both experienced major health problems as a result of living in an area formerly used as a waste site by Hooker Chemical Company. The company had sold the site to the city of Niagara Falls for one dollar, and a school was built on it in 1954. As the mothers of the school children in the late 1970s...

Hydroclimatology defined

The American hydrologist Walter Langbein 1967 defined hydroclimatology as the study of the influence of climate upon the waters of the land. He identified precipitation and evapotranspiration and the imbalance of these climatic elements as the focus of hydroclimate. However, subsequent advances in understanding natural processes complemented by development of contemporary measurement techniques, data acquisition, and analytical tools suggest this perspective is too restrictive for modern...

National Geographic

Earth Atmosphere Conduction

Figure 11.4 Earth's atmosphere is made up of five layers. Each layer is unique in composition and temperature. As shown, air temperature changes with altitude. When you fly in a plane, you might be flying at the top of the troposphere, or you might enter into the stratosphere. In the exosphere, gas molecules can be exchanged between the atmosphere and space. Noctilucent clouds are shiny clouds that can be seen in the twilight in the summer around 50 -60 latitude in the northern and southern...

Equivalent Particle Diameters

Up to this point we have considered spherical particles of a known diameter Dp and density pp. Atmospheric particles are sometimes nonspherical and we seldom have information about their density. Also a number of techniques used for atomospheric aerosol size measurement actually measure the particle's terminal velocity or its electrical mobility. In these cases we need to define an equivalent diameter for the nonspherical particles or even for the spherical particles of unknown density or...

Direct Circulation Systems

Direct Circulation System

A schematic diagram of a direct circulation system is shown in Figure 5.9. In this system, a pump is used to circulate potable water from storage to the collectors when there is enough available solar energy to increase its temperature and then return the heated water to the storage tank until it is needed. Because a pump is used to circulate the water, the collectors can be mounted either above or below the storage tank. Direct circulation systems often use a single storage tank equipped with...

Flow Measurement Capabilities of Customer Water Meters

Neptune Compound Water Meters

In general, meter accuracy is influenced by two principal factors the physical performance of the flow sensing mechanism of the meter, and the appropriate sizing of the meter to fit the customer's consumption profile. Water utilities provide service to a wide variety of customers, from residential service 5 8-in meters typically in the United States to large industrial sites up to 12-in meters . Many accurate and reliable meter types exist to measure flows in this variety of settings each with...

Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is one of the fundamental forms of energy. It is associated with oscillating electric and magnetic fields hence the name at right angles to each other and to the direction in which the radiation is traveling. It can be regarded as pure energy traveling either in waves or as a stream of particles, called photons. Although the two descriptions sound contradictory, in fact they are not. All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the same speed, whether it is...

Levels of Energy Accounting

Number Family Member From 1978

As in financial accounting, the level of sophistication or detail of energy accounting systems varies considerably from company to company. A very close correlation can be developed between the levels of sophistication of financial accounting systems and those of energy accounting systems. This is outlined in Figure 1-11. Most companies with successful energy management programs have passed level 1 and are working toward the necessary submetering and reporting systems for level 2. In most...

Models Of The General Circulation

Polar Front Jet Streams

At this point it is useful to summarise the previous sections in terms of a single coherent model of the world's circulation overall. The model must account for the distribution of pressures Figure 1.8 , the meridional transfer of heat Note 5.F and the latitudinal variations of rainfall Figure 10.6 and winds Figure 12.5 . Various models have been suggested in the past. Edmund Halley proposed in 1686 that the easterly Trade winds were following the Sun, flowing towards the part of the Earth that...

Determining the System Input Volume

Definition The annual volume input to the water supply system. In case the entire system input is metered, the calculation of the annual system input should be a straightforward task. The regular meter records have to be collected and the annual quantities of the individual system inputs calculated. This includes own sources as well as imported water from bulk suppliers. The accuracy of the input meters should be verified on an annual basis, using portable flow-measuring devices, or if possible...

Pyrolisation gasification and anaerobic digestion

Pyrolysis Process Making Charcoal

Even when a particular biomass material is suitable for straightforward burning as described in Chapter 7, this will not necessarily be the most efficient way of recovering the embodied energy of the biomass. Materials with naturally high moisture content in particular may well contain significant amounts of hydrocarbons and other organic materials but drying them to a state in which they could be fed directly into a boiler is rarely either practical or economic. However, alternative...

Active cooling options

Parabolic Trough Plant

Passive cooling systems, like passive space heating systems, have many attractive features, not least simplicity, cost and reliability. They also have serious limitations. Windcatchers, solar chimneys and the stack effect on their own can never ensure that stale warm air is always extracted from every nook and cranny of every building and that cool fresh air always replaces it at a rate which significantly improves occupant comfort. Larger buildings with complex floor plans that depend entirely...

The Conceptual Meaning of Globalization

Globalization is viewed as a step toward a fully integrated world market 1,2 and as a key ingredient of a global society 3 . Globalization is also seen by some academics as a borderless world 4 . Brown 5 expounds on globalization as large-scale openness of borders accomplished by loosening state regulations to promote rapid financial transactions, trade, communications, and other social and cultural activities. More precisely, globalization is a phenomenon that encourages international...

Water Harvesting Techniques

Classification Rainwater Harvesting

Water harvesting techniques may be classified into two major types, based on the size of the catchment Figure 6 micro-catchment systems and macro-catchment systems Oweis et al., 2001 . Surface runoff in micro-catchment systems is collected from small catchments usually less than 1000 m2 and applied to an adjacent agricultural area, where it is stored in the root zone and used directly by plants. The target area may be planted with trees, bushes, or annual crops. The farmer has control, within...

The Southeast Trade Winds

Fiji Meteorological Service Rainfall

Most of the western region of the tropical South Pacific benefits from the Southeast Trade Winds. These are produced by the effect of Coriolis deflection on surface air drawn towards the low pressure region at the Equator, called the Equatorial Trough. The Coriolis deflection of winds, which is to the left in the Southern Hemisphere, is caused by the Earth's rotation. The Southeast Trade Winds are persistent for most of the year, although they tend to be weaker in the summer season from...

Orographic precipitation

Seeder And Feeder Clouds

Orographic precipitation is commonly regarded as a distinct type, but this requires careful qualification. Mountains are not especially efficient in causing moisture to be removed from airstreams crossing them, yet because precipitation falls repeatedly in more or less the same locations, the cumulative totals are large. An orographic barrier may produce several effects, depending on its alignment and size. They include 1 forced ascent on a smooth mountain slope, producing adiabatic cooling,...

Timescales Of Climatic Variation

Nested Stochastic Diagram

Climate varies on all timescales and space scales, from interannual climatic variability to very long-period variations related to the evolution of the atmosphere and changes in the lithosphere. Examples of known climatic fluctuations are shown in Fig. 2.14. In this diagram, each row represents an expansion, by a factor of ten, of each interval on the row above it. Thus, one can envisage short-term high-frequency variations nested within long-term lower-frequency variations Webb, 1991 ....

Formation and Composition of Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons formed in a process lasting millions ofyears by decomposition ofbiological matter. Carbon and hydrogen are the main components, but other elements such as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals are also present in small amounts. At normal temperatures and pressures, these compounds may be gaseous, liquid or solid, depending on the complexity of their molecules. All fossil fuels are derived from biological materials, either marine plankton or...

The Effects Of Human Activity

During the 20th century, the 1930s drought was much worse than any of the others. The reason is not certain, but perhaps improper farming techniques had something to do with it. People found out that New England farming methods did not work in the Great Plains. When the soil out west was plowed, it dried out during the summer months, and the almost constant winds blew it away. After the 1930s, trees were planted as windbreaks, and much of the land was irrigated. Droughts are correlated with...

Renaissance of Nuclear Energy in the USA Opportunities Challenges and Future Research Needs

White Queen Quotes

Abstract The future of nuclear energy is an important issue for many countries intending to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and achieve the reduction targets for green house gas GHG emissions. As of June, 2008, there were 439 operating nuclear reactors with a total generating capacity of 372 GWe and 42 power reactors under construction in 15 countries. In the USA, a total of 104 nuclear reactors currently produce 20 of the electricity and account for at least 70 of all GHG-free...

Beddington Zero Energy Development BedZED

Zero Energy Town Houses

BedZED is not just another low energy housing scheme, it is a prescription for a social revolution a prototype of how we should live in the twenty-first century if we are to enjoy a sustainable future Figure 18.7 . The design was led by Bill Dunster Architects who are one of the UK's top evangelists for ecologically sustainable architecture with the services and energy strategy developed by Arup Associates. The Innovative Peabody Trust commissioned this development as an ultra-low energy mixed...

The National Assembly for Wales Richard Rogers Partnership

Light And Ventilation

Following devolution, the Principality of Wales was granted greater autonomy resulting in the need for an assembly building for which the Richard Rogers Partnership was appointed architects with environmental engineer BDSP. It is a classic example of architect and engineer working in concert from the earliest stage of the project. The design brief was for a building which reflected the democratic nature of government whilst also being a landmark example of low energy design. It also has to last...

Active solar space heating

Solar Heat Capture For Winter

Adding pumps or fans to passive solar water or air heating systems can greatly increase their overall efficiency and sophistication, at the expense of greater capital and running costs and lower reliability. Active solar space heating systems can take full advantage of thermal store possibilities to significantly reduce the need for back-up space heating. More solar heat can be utilised for longer periods, and extremes of temperature can be mitigated more effectively. Active solar water space...

Low Cost Hydrogen from Hybrid CPV Systems

Wind Hybrid System Schema

We are now in a position to understand why this new high-efficiency solar electric technology provokes a fresh look at the challenge of generating hydrogen from water using sunlight. In addition to generating solar electricity at low cost, CPV systems have the potential to produce hydrogen through an electrolysis process. The generation of electrolytic hydrogen from solar energy is critically important to the world's long-term energy needs for several reasons. The feedstock water and supplied...

What Is The Composition Of Dripstone Formations Gravel Limestone Clay Or Sand

Bar Graph Endangered Animals Recovery

Match each description below with the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide. 1. outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere 2. transfer of energy from a higher to a lower temperature by collisions between particles 3. temperature at which condensation of water vapor can occur 4. occurs when the amount of water vapor in a volume of air has reached the maximum amount 5. the amount of water vapor present in air Complete the sentences below using vocabulary terms from the Study Guide. 6. _are...

Drought Policy In South Africa

South Africa has a long history of living with drought. A drought during the early 1930s that coincided with the great depression made a deep impression on many policy makers. Significant droughts also occurred during the 1960s, 1980s, and early 1990s. Despite this familiarity with drought, policy makers still struggle to quantify it and to develop a stable policy framework. Drought policy falls at the interface among the numerous definitions of drought that require some quantification of...

Brief History of Alternative Fuels

The history of alternative fuels goes back to the very first days of the car industry. In 1900, more than half the cars were running on ethanol, steam, and electricity.9 Many of Karl Benz's early diesel engines ran on peanut oil, a biofuel. Henry Ford's first car ran on alcohol, and his wife, Clara, drove an electric vehicle. Thomas Edison invested considerable time and money in improving batteries. Electric vehicles were the safest, quietest cars on the road. Back then, petroleum fuels were...

Preface Sample On Air Pollution

The planet is a marvelous place a place with blue skies, wild storms, deep lakes, and rich and diverse ecosystems. The tides ebb and flow, baby animals are born in the spring, and tropical rain forests harbor an astonishing array of life. The Earth sustains living things and provides humans with the resources to maintain a bountiful way of life water, soil, and nutrients to grow food, and the mineral and energy resources to build and fuel modern society, among many other things. The physical...

Suntracking Concentrating Collectors

Sun Collector Convection

Energy delivery temperatures can be increased by decreasing the area from which the heat losses occur. Temperatures far above those attainable by flat-plate collectors can be reached if a large amount of solar radiation is concentrated on a relatively small collection area. This is done by interposing an optical device between the source of radiation and the energy-absorbing surface. Concentrating collectors exhibit certain advantages over the conventional flat-plate type Kalogirou et al.,...

Types of Nuclear Bomb

Fission Bomb Design

The minimum mass sufficient to sustain a chain reaction is known as the critical mass. This is the mass for which the neutrons produced in fission just balance the neutrons that are absorbed or escape. For an effective nuclear weapon, the critical mass must be assembled quickly. Two general approaches are used to achieve this, as pictured in Figure 17.1 Fig. 17.1. Schematic sketches of fission bomb designs top, gun-type bomb bottom, implosion-type bomb. From Paul P. Craig and John A. Jungerman,...

New Look at the Energy Budget

Energy Budget Weather

By the end of the 1950s, weather modification had evolved from being a matter of changes in local weather clearing fog, preventing frost on tender young fruit, reducing hail damage, generating rain to massive plans for climate control. One of the more grandiose schemes proposed by Russian scientists was to eliminate the Arctic ice cap in an attempt to warm up the northern and very cold regions of their country to improve their habitability. While the proposal itself may have been rather...

The Ekman spiral and Langmuir circulation

Lake Water Langmuir

The orbital motion of water induced by surface waves penetrates some metres beneath the sea surface. The direct effect of the wind, however, penetrates to a depth of scores of metres. This is because of a larger scale physical force balance than the microscale pressure anomalies causing wave motion. The resulting flow varies with depth in the Ekman spiral. Small-scale circulation cells driven by this spiral are known as Langmuir circulation cells. In the winter of 1893 4 Fridtjof Nansen's...

The Nature of Science

Biosphere Foldables

tl Eureka Slide SuperStock, tr Gavriel Jecan CORBIS, bl Stockbyte SuperStock, br Bob O'Connor Getty Images, bkgd Science VU GSFC Visuals Unlimited Earth scientists use specific methods to investigate Earth and beyond. Earth science encompasses five areas of study astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science. Jjjdjea Scientists use scientific methods to structure their experiments and investigations. Precise communication is crucial for scientists to share their...

Case Study Coastal Erosion on Niue Island During Tropical Cyclone Heta in January

Coastal Erosion Egypt

Tropical Cyclone Heta was the first tropical cyclone to form in the RSMC-Nadi area of responsibility during the 2003-2004 tropical cyclone season Fiji Meteorological Service 2004 . The system was first identified as a tropical depression north of Fiji on 28 December 2003, as it moved northeastwards to reach a position just west of Atafu, the northernmost of the Tokelau atolls. Fig. 7.6. Changes in the geomorphology of a sand spit, formerly connected to the low limestone island of Yanuca in...

Building integrated systems

Altechnica Turbine

The Vivo building illustrates one version of a building integrated wind generating system. There is increasing interest in the way that the design of buildings can incorporate renewable technologies including wind turbines. Up to now such machines have been regarded as adjunct to buildings but a concept patented by Altechnica of Milton Keynes demonstrates how multiple turbines can become a feature of the design. The system is designed to be mounted on the ridge of a roof or at the apex of a...

Oil pollution of beaches

Oil Pollution Sources Sea Diagram

The fate and effects of oil washed up on beaches depend not only on the variables such as oil type, mentioned above, but also on the energy level of the shore degree of exposure to wave energy and on substratum type. In general, the more exposed the shore, the quicker the biological recovery time of the littoral benthos. This applies both to rocky and sedimentary beaches. Oil does not remain long on wave-battered rocky shores, and where vertical cliffs are present the oil may never reach them...

Dissolution Of Deepsea Carbonates

Aragonite Compensation Depth

Throughout the deep ocean basins of the world, a major factor affecting preservation of carbonate tests is the rate of dissolution at depth. The oceans are predominantly undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate at all depths below the upper mixed layer the zone above the thermocline Olausson, 1965, 1967 . After death of the organisms, deposition of the test on the ocean floor leads to dissolution in the undersaturated water Adelsack and Berger, 1977 . Pteropod tests composed of calcium...

Horizontal or vertical

Egg Beater Darrieus Dimensions Shape

As outlined above, the standard wind turbine has a vertical rotor attached to a horizontal shaft. This arrangement imposes certain restrictions on the wind turbine design. With a horizontal shaft, the rotor turns in a vertical plane and must be raised on a tower so that the blades are clear of the ground and of the turbulent layer of air next to it. Gearbox and generator are attached directly to the turbine shaft so these, too, must be placed on the tower, high above ground. This raises the...

Cogeneration trigeneration and beyond

Power Chp Buffer

Generating the electricity that the modern world depends on by burning hydrocarbons can be a very inefficient process. This is particularly the case where the electricity is generated in large power stations then transmitted long distances to the consumer. National electricity grids may be very convenient, for producer and consumer alike, but as little as one-third of the chemical energy in the fuels burned actually arrives in the form of electrical power. This applies to both fossil fuels and...

Definition of extreme events

Extreme events are generally easy to recognize but difficult to define. This is due to several reasons. First, there is no unique definition for what is meant by the word extreme several definitions are in common use. Second, the concept of extremeness is relative and so strongly depends on context. Third, the words severe, ''rare,'' ''extreme,'' and high-impact are often used interchangeably. 1.2.1 Severe, rare, extreme, or high-impact In an attempt to alleviate some of the confusion, here are...

Types of smallscale wind turbine

Spiralf Rmige Wind Turbine Bilder

Most small systems have a direct drive permanent magnet generator which limits mechanical transmission losses. Systems under 2 kW usually have a 24-48 volt capacity aimed at battery charging or a DC circuit rather than having grid compatibility. Up to the present, horizontal axis machines are much more in evidence that the vertical axis type even at this scale. These machines have efficient braking systems for when wind speed is excessive. Some even tip backwards in high winds adopting the...

Thermohaline Circulation Of The Oceans

Thermohaline Circulation

Circulation of water at the ocean surface is largely a response to the overlying atmospheric circulation which exerts drag at the surface. However, circulation of deeper waters in the oceans of the world is a consequence of density variations, which result from differences in temperature and salinity brought about by sensible and latent heat fluxes, precipitation, and runoff at the ocean surface this is termed the thermohaline circulation. In areas where surface waters become relatively dense,...

Describing the Hybrid CPV System

Solar Hydrogen Civilization

This approach first proposed by Solar Systems in Australia employs a dish concentrator that reflects sunlight onto a focal point see Fig. 6 . At the focal point is a spectral splitter heat mirror that reflects infrared solar radiation and transmits the visible sunlight to high-efficiency solar cells behind the spectral splitter. Figure 7 schematically shows the transmission across the solar spectrum wavelengths. The reflected infrared radiation is gathered by a fiber-optics light pipe and...

The Multi Stage Flash MSF Process

Multi Stage Flash Process

The MSF process is composed of a series of elements, called stages. In each stage, condensing steam is used to pre-heat the seawater feed. By fractionating the overall temperature differential between the warm source and seawater into a large number of stages, the system approaches ideal total latent heat recovery. Operation of this system requires pressure gradients in the plant. The principle of operation is shown in Figure 8.4. Current commercial installations are designed with 10-30 stages...

Concentrating Collectors

Truncated Compound Parabolic Collector

As we have seen in Section 3.2, concentrating collectors work by interposing an optical device between the source of radiation and the energy-absorbing surface. Therefore, for concentrating collectors, both optical and thermal analyses are required. In this book, only two types of concentrating collectors are analyzed compound parabolic and parabolic trough collectors. Initially, the concentration ratio and its theoretical maximum value are defined. The concentration ratio C is defined as the...

Problemsolving Lab

How do sediments move in a stream The critical velocity of water determines the size of particles that can be moved. The higher the stream velocity, the larger the particles that 1. Identify at what velocity flowing water would pick up a pebble. 2. Identify at what range of velocities flowing water would carry a pebble. 3. Infer which object would not fall into the same size range as a pebble an egg, a baseball, a golf ball, a table tennis ball, a volleyball, and a pea. How would you test your...

Advantages of impoundment systems

The attractiveness of impoundment systems is understandable Water is a renewable source of energy, and the natural rain cycle constantly replenishes the water supply, at zero cost. No fossil fuels are needed, and the supply of raw fuel is virtually automatic. Hydropower dams also reduce a nation's reliance on foreign energy sources. Following are some other key benefits Hydropower is cost competitive with all other energy sources, and in many cases it provides the cheapest energy obtainable. As...

Hydrogen and carbon content in fossil fuels

All fossil fuels are composed of hydrogen and carbon among other things that don't factor into the combustion energy production phase , hence the term hydrocarbons to refer to these energy sources. The vast proportion of the useable energy comes from hydrogen, whereas the carbon generates the vast majority of the waste. When carbon burns completely in an oxygen atmosphere such as the earth's , the product is a lot of carbon dioxide CO2 , the gas blamed for global warming. Other byproducts of...

Facilitates heat recovery

Solar Shading Light Shelf

An example of a climate facade building is the office development at 88 Wood Street in the City of London by the Richard Rogers Partnership RRP . The requirement was for floor to ceiling glazing which can create a problem of solar gain which is exacerbated by the heat from computers and, in this case, a high services loading. The facade developed by RRP and Ove Arup and Partners consists of a double glazed external skin made up of some of the world's largest double glazed units measuring 3 m X...

Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI and Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index PHDI

The PDSI, based on the Palmer Drought Model Palmer, 1965 , has been one of the most commonly used drought indicators in the United States. One reason for its popularity is that its development in 1965 preceded other indices and resulted in its widespread use and wide-ranging application. The PDSI is derived from a moisture balance model, using historic records of precipitation, temperature, and the local available water capacity of the soil. The PHDI uses a modification of the PDSI to assess...

Iwaawwa Recommended Performance Indicators for Nonrevenue Water and Real Losses

Leakage Management Iwa

During the period 1996 to 2000, various IWA Task Forces undertook a detailed study to determine the most appropriate performance indicators for different water supply purposes. Table 7.4 below shows the PIs for nonrevenue water and real losses recommended by IWA1,2,8 converted to North American units. The PIs are categorized by function and by level, defined as follows Level 1 basic A first layer of indicators that provide a general management overview of the efficiency and effectiveness of the...

Section Assessment

I Some precipitation infiltrates the ground to become groundwater. I Groundwater is stored below the water table in pore spaces of rocks and sediment. I Groundwater moves through permeable layers called aquifers and is trapped by impermeable layers called aquicludes. I Groundwater emerges from the ground where the water table intersects Earth's surface. 1. imandfffll Explain how the movement of groundwater is related to the water cycle. 2. Illustrate how the relative positions of an aquifer and...

Smallscale hydropower

Pelton Shoot Head Penstock Forebay

In many ways hydropower is the ideal alternative energy source. Its delivery is much more reliable, consistent and predictable than wind or solar energy. Modern turbines can extract up to 90 of the kinetic and potential energy in the water that passes through them -although an overall efficiency of 70 is more typical for small installations. More power is usually available during the wet winter months than in the summer, a supply profile that more closely matches normal demand. Unlike some...

Passive solar space heating

Manual Operated Air Dampers Air Handlers

As global warming becomes more obvious, the need for space heating in most developed countries will decrease, even as the need for space cooling increases see Chapter 8 . Nevertheless, for many years to come the energy required to keep buildings comfortable for their occupants during the depths of winter will still be a sizeable fraction of the world's energy needs. In Europe currently this fraction is estimated at more than 12 . Even with enhanced standards for insulation and increasingly...

The Technologies For Methylmethacrylate Production

H3c Ch3 Chemical Compound

Polymethylmethacrylate production currently amounts to more than 2.8 million tons per year on a worldwide scale, and the average yearly demand has been steadily increasing in recent years by more than 0.2 million tons. In contrast to the majority of bulk chemicals, for which the number of competitive processes is limited to one or two technologies, in the case of methylmethacrylate MMA , the monomer for polymethylmethacrylate production, there are several different technologies that are...

Unassisted natural ventilation

Lanchester Library Ventilation

Pioneers of natural ventilation are Alan Short and Brian Ford in association with Max Fordham. Their first groundbreaking building in the UK was the Queen's Engineering Building at Leicester de Montfort University Short Ford and Partners . This building has been well documented and a particularly useful reference is Thomas, R. ed. 1996 Environmental Design, E amp FN Spon. Maintaining the principle of pure natural ventilation without mechanical assistance is the Coventry University Library, the...

The Stornoway Waterwheel

Waterwheel Overshot System

A modern version of the classic overshot waterwheel is at the centre of an imaginative restoration project in the Outer Hebrides. Back in the early nineteenth century, the subsistence economy of western Scottish islands like Lewis was based on a plethora of small vertical axis or 'Norse' waterwheels. These powered the grindstones that ground the barley and oatmeal which formed the staple diet of the locals - wheat was unsuited to the infertile, acid soils and cool, damp climate of the Hebridean...

Passive cooling options

Courtyard Cross Ventilation Analysis

As the climate warms, the demand for environmental cooling will inevitably increase. It would increase anyway in developed countries the acceptable ' comfort zone' inside buildings is becoming narrower. Occupants are less and less willing to modify their clothing and habits in response to seasonal changes. Fifty years ago clerical staff thought nothing of wearing woollen underwear to the office, where men would work in three-piece suits, collar and tie for most of the year. In the height of...

Gustavegaspard de coriolis

General Circulation Atmosphere

Born in Paris on May 21, 1792, Coriolis was a French engineer and mathematician who first described the force of motion on a rotating body, which has come to be called the Coriolis force. It is the apparent path of deflection of an object as it passes over the rotating Earth. If an object is launched, it will not land in a straight trajectory but be offset depending on the rate of movement of the object and the rate of movement of the Earth underneath. This concept was very important to the...

Rearing A Plankton Menagerie By Shawn Carlson

Culture Your Own Live Phytoplankton

Shawn Carlson explains how to raise single-celled aquatic creatures-lots of them The Monterey Bay Aquarium in California houses some of the finest marine exhibits in the world. So when the staff recently offered me a personal, behind-the-scenes tour, I couldn't refuse. Tim Cooke and Ed Seidel made the visit absolutely fascinating, and I am indebted to them for their hospitality. Tim, an aquarist extraordinaire, even let me in on a few secrets for raising plankton. And he should know them the...

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

The alarming increase in machines torments and frightens me, they are rolling down upon us like a thunderstorm, slowly, slowly, but they are on their way, they will come upon us.1 The Germany into which Goethe was born on 28 August 1749 was a pre-industrial collection of statelets. By his death on 22 March 1832 this pre-eminent genius, a poet, dramatist, novelist, artist, critic, lawyer, civil servant, statesman and scientist, had lived through a period which took Germany to the very threshold...

American Indian History

American Indians were the first human inhabitants of South Park. The Utes were entrenched in central Colorado when the Spaniards first entered the North American interior in the fifteenth century Simmons, 1966 . Initially they were apparently loosely organized into family groups, but after the acquisition of horses from the Spanish they organized into larger bands Swift, 1980 . Because of the abundant game animals and salt deposits in the basin, Comanches, Kiowas, Cheyennes, and Arapahos also...

Optimum Collector Temperature

Iso 9806 Report

By substituting Eqs. 3.133 and 3.134 into Eq. 3.142 , the rate of entropy generation can be written as S Ur Tr _ T0 _ Q Q _ UrAr Tr _ T0 3.145 By applying Eq. 3.137 in 3.145 and performing various manipulations, The dimensionless term, Sgen UrAr, accounts for the fact that the entropy generation rate scales with the finite size of the system, which is described by By differentiating Eq. 3.146 with respect to 9 and setting it to 0, the optimum collector temperature 9opt for minimum entropy...