Section Assessment

I Some precipitation infiltrates the ground to become groundwater. I Groundwater is stored below the water table in pore spaces of rocks and sediment. I Groundwater moves through permeable layers called aquifers and is trapped by impermeable layers called aquicludes. I Groundwater emerges from the ground where the water table intersects Earth's surface. 1. imandfffll Explain how the movement of groundwater is related to the water cycle. 2. Illustrate how the relative positions of an aquifer and...

Air Pollution

Polluting compounds present another area for concern. For the great majority of most industrialized nations, the very air we breathe is laced with smoke, particulates, and an array of toxic chemicals from human activities and industrial processes. This is a major problem. The most common air pollutants are Heavy metals arsenic, chromium, cadmium, lead, mercury, zinc Organic chemicals volatile organic compounds VOCs , dioxins Most of the time, people depend on...

Lapse Rates

Roswell Incident

The change of temperature with height is called the lapse rate. A positive lapse rate represents the normal condition with cooler air above, the temperature falling with increased height. The opposite, a negative lapse rate (ie the temperature increases with height) is called an inversion (Chapter 7). Temperature profiles show the actual lapse rate (or environmental lapse rate) at each level, i.e. the tangent to the profile at that level. Typical profiles in Figure 1.9 show positive lapse rates...

Problems With Ocean Iron Fertilization

Should the oceans be seeded with large amounts of iron ore that will increase the growth of phytoplankton thatwill consume carbon dioxide The idea has attracted some support among corporations and foundations looking for ways to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide without changing the world's basic energy generation mix. The idea is simple on its face iron stimulates the growth of phytoplankton that absorbs carbon dioxide. Ulf Riebesell, a marine biologist at the Alfred Wegener Institute for...

Dating Ice Cores

Cause Younger Dryas

One of the most important problems in any ice-core study is determining the age-depth relationship. Many different approaches have been used and it is now clear that very accurate timescales can generally be developed for at least the last 10,00012,000 yr if accumulation rates are high enough. Prior to that, there is increasing uncertainty about the age of ice, but new approaches are constantly improving age estimates, allowing comparisons with other proxy records to be made with more...

Quantitative Paleoclimatic Reconstructions Based On Pollen Analysis

Pollen Transfer Function

Paleoclimatic reconstruction from fossil pollen spectra is based on the notion that, as vegetation distribution is largely determined by climate, it should be possible to use that distribution as represented in the fossil pollen spectra to reconstruct past climate. Large databases of surface pollen samples generally from the surface sediments of lakes are now available for many parts of the world see Appendix B and these have enabled pollen assemblages to be calibrated directly in terms of...

Diminishing Oil and Gas Reserves

Diminishing Oil Reserves

The World is entirely dependent on oil. The transportation sector in particular, so vital in our society for carrying people, goods, food and materials, relies on more than 95 of its gasoline, diesel and kerosene derived from petroleum, and consumes about 60 of the oil produced. We also depend on oil for the large variety of petrochemicals and derived products such as plastics, detergents and synthetic fabrics that today are so ubiquitous in our daily lives that we can hardly think about where...

SWOT Analysis

Green Building Design Teams

My friend Nathan Good, an award-winning green architect in Salem, Oregon likes to use a SWOT analysis for his visioning sessions, using a diagram much like the one shown in Fig. 4.2. Borrowed from the world of the MBA school and from management FM Link online , accessed April 2008. Interview with Dan Heinfeld, LPA, Inc., February 2008. Figure 4.1 Left to right John Nystedt, Muscoe Martin, Colin Franklin, Tony Aiello, and Bert Westcott, design team members of the Morris Arboretum project....

Justification for the inclusion of science in the school curriculum

Some topics in our science curriculum owe their presence more to accidents of history than to anything else, though we could justify any part of our existing curriculum from a cultural point of view. If the ideas form part of our scientific heritage, humanity as a whole has a right to share this knowledge. We can justify including the cultural achievements of humanity from other disciplines of knowledge on the same basis there is little distinction between studying the evolution of humans two...

How the Power Is Extracted

Types Fossil Fuels

The head is critical to the design of the turbine generator combination in any hydro-power station. The technology is very mature and design choices for getting the right turbine generator combination to suit the conditions at a particular reservoir are well established 8 . Rotational speeds in the range 100 rpm to 600 rpm are typical of water driven prime movers, and the choice of turbine speed is governed by the priority placed on turbulence-free interaction between the flowing water and the...

Cloud Patterns

Tropical Cyclones Global Warming

The area of clouds associated with tropical cyclones is much larger than the region influenced by strong winds. This is because the strong winds reflect the area characterised by the steep atmospheric pressure gradient, whereas the Fig. 3.2. Satellite image of Tropical Cyclone Zoe on 27 December 2002, northeast of the main islands of Vanuatu. Note the plumes of high cirrus clouds at the outer storm extremities and the spiralling arms. Base image courtesy of NOAA. Fig. 3.2. Satellite image of...

Mechanically assisted ventilation

Portcullis House Ventilation System

Rotating cowls was the system adopted by Michael Hopkins and Partners with Ove Arup and Partners in the Nottingham University Jubilee Campus Figure 12.9 . This ventilation system is the successor to Hopkins' and Arup's innovations at the Inland Revenue HQ also in Nottingham, and Portcullis House, Westminster. These led to a low pressure mechanical system linked to heat recovery via a thermal wheel which recovers 84 per cent of the exhaust heat. The mechanical system requires 51 000 kWh per year...

Effect of Thin Film Coating and Precoverage on H Dissociation and H Adsorption and Absorption

The ability to deposit monolayers of metal atoms on single crystal metallic substrates and the formation of multilayer structures initiated a surge of activity in surface and interface science, which has also had an impact on H sorption and permeation studies. The modification of structure, electronic structure and magnetism at the interface and in the overlayer are widely studied properties 138-142 . Strongly enhanced magnetic moments were found for some transition metal overlayers, as were...

Classification of Communicable Diseases

No biological system is perfect and communicable diseases in particular are not readily classified however, any grouping makes it easier to understand and remember, so the objective of this short chapter is to look at the different ways this can be done. A disease is a morbid condition of the body (e.g. measles or plague). As the cause of diseases were discovered, they became identified by the causative organism, such as trypanosomiasis or pneumococcal meningitis, but confusion arose because...

Polar and Ferrel cells

Hadley Ferrel Polar

Extremely cold, dense air also subsides over the North and South Poles. It produces the two polar high-pressure regions. Air flows out from them and is deflected to become the polar easterly winds. Any object moving toward or away from the equator and not firmly attached to the surface does not travel in a straight line. As the diagram illustrates. It is deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Moving air and water tend to follow a clockwise...

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina Death Toll

The most destructive hurricane to hit the United States in historic times was born unceremoniously as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23, 2005. By the next morning, it had become Tropical Storm Katrina, and one day later it was a hurricane. That same day, the storm moved over south Florida as a Category 1 hurricane, killing nine people and causing an estimated 600 million in damage. But that was just Katrina's opening act. The storm traveled west over the Gulf...

Chlorofluorocarbons halons and the ozone layer

Effect Ozone

If there was some doubt about the impact of SST exhaust emissions on the ozone layer, the effects of some other chemicals seemed less uncertain. Among these, the chlorofluorocarbon CFC group and related bromofluorocarbons or halons have been identified as potentially the most dangerous see Table 6.2 . The CFCs, sometimes referred to by their trade name, Freon, came to prominence as a result of lifestyle changes which have occurred since the 1930s. They are used in refrigeration and air...

Atmospheric Chemistry Of Methane

The principal oxidation reaction of methane, CH4, is with the hydroxyl radical CH4 OH CH3 H20 reaction 1 As in the case of the hydrogen atom, the methyl radical, CH3, reacts virtually instantaneously with 02 to yield the methyl peroxy radical, CH302 so that the CH4-OH reaction may be written concisely as The rate coefficient for reaction 1 is k 2.45 x 10 12 exp -1775 T cm3 molecule1 s_1. At T 273 K and OH 106 molecules cm3, the lifetime of CH4 against OH reaction is about 9 years. Despite its...

Ancient Oaxaca From Nomadic Foraging to Warring State

Historical Foraging

Kent Flannery and Joyce Marcus report no evidence for group conflict among the small nomadic bands that foraged in the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico between 10,000 and 4000 BP. Toward the end of this period, the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary villages was under way. By 2800 to 2450 BP, three rival chiefly centers existed in the Valley of Oaxaca, buffered Figure 5.2 By the time of Christ, Zapotec civilization was already flourishing in the Oaxacan highlands of Mexico....

The Role Of Refuges

Northern Alaska is expected to experience the most extreme of the effects, particularly in the winter. The researchers also project that the ground will continue to thaw and that the upper 30-35 feet 9-11 m of permafrost will probably melt by 2100. In addition, precipitation will increase up to 25 percent in the north and northwest, but decrease by 10 percent along the southern coast. Soils will dry out due to increased evaporation, and wildfires will become more prevalent....

The Impact of the Boll Weevil

The boll weevil crossed the border from Mexico into Texas in 1893 ten years later, in 1903, it was poised on the Louisiana border. The boll weevil, a beetle of the order Coleoptera, differed from the cotton bollworm, a moth larva. The weevil went through four stages of development, taking about 25 days to mature. The insects reproduced very rapidly and were extremely resistant to all kinds of weather conditions. If a single pair mated in the spring, it could produce as many as 250,000 offspring...

Adiabatic Temperature Changes

Saturation Temperature Pressure

When an air parcel moves to an environment of lower pressure without heat exchange with surrounding air its volume increases. Volume increase involves work and the consumption of energy this reduces the heat available per unit volume and hence the temperature. Such a temperature change, involving no subtraction or addition of heat, is termed adiabatic. Vertical displacements of air are the major cause of adiabatic temperature changes. Near the earth's surface, most temperature changes are...

Negotiation by exhaustion

'Negotiation by exhaustion' is often used to refer specifically to the final 24 to 48 hours of negotiations, where delegates and the organizers work round the clock, often without rest or sustenance, to secure a final deal (or indeed admit failure), almost invariably after the scheduled end of negotiations. This final marathon session typically comes at the end of an increasingly intense week or more of negotiations, where formal, informal and unofficial meetings have also gone on late into the...

Groundwater Weathering and Deposition

Groundwater Deposition

Chemical weathering of limestone by water causes the characteristic topography of karst areas. Real-World Reading Link You might have seen an old gravestone, statue, or sculpture that has been weathered by acidic water. Similar processes form limestone caves underground. Acids are aqueous solutions that contain hydrogen ions. Most groundwater is slightly acidic due to carbonic acid. Carbonic acid forms when carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water and combines with water molecules. This happens...

Power and Entropy

An ideal pendulum, which is not subject to air friction e.g., pendulum in a vacuum , and which also possesses frictionless hinges perfect bearings , would oscillate in perpetuity, if allowed to do so, with perfect transference of energy between the potential and kinetic forms. The total energy the sum of the instantaneous potential and kinetic energies for the ideal isolated pendulum is, however, fixed. No matter how long it is in motion there is no change in the total energy for this closed...

Telecommuting

Telecommuting is another good option to help reduce your environmental impact. The biggest hurdle to telecommuting like the paperless office is getting people to sign onto it. But this time it isn't workers who might balk at it a lot of times it is management. Telecommuting is often wrongly perceived as a vacation and workers not having to do their share of the work. But that isn't the case. Research organization IDC stated that 8.9 million Americans worked at home at least 3 days a month in...

Carbonate Weathering

The most notable aspect of present-day carbonate weathering is that it is so much faster than silicate weathering. Silicate terrains, such as portions of the high Himalayas and the New Zealand Alps Blum et al., 1998 Jacobson et al., 2003 that contain only traces of carbonates are marked by water chemistries dominated by carbonate dissolution. On a much grander scale, although silicates cover most of the surface area of the continents, the global average chemical composition of river water is...

Soils And Mineralogy Composition

Soil is composed of minerals (rock, clay, silt, and sand), air, water, and organic (plant and animal) material. The chemistry of soils and rocks is also affected by climate, and through the study of paleosoils (ancient soils), scientists can infer what past climate was like. In humid climates such as jungles, for instance, the soluble minerals are dissolved and washed out of the soil. Because only certain minerals do this, soils of humid climates are characteristically missing or deficient on...

Symbols In General

Air Mass Symbols

The temperature data on a weather map gives an indication of the locations of fronts, where air masses having different characteristics come together. Most severe weather occurs near fronts. The isobars are kinked along the line of an intense or fast-moving front. Stormy weather tends to occur near these zones. Weather fronts are plotted as lines with bumps or barbs that indicate the type of front and the direction of movement. There are four major types of fronts. In a cold front, a cold air...

Peer Pressure And Social Norms

The power of peer pressure to influence individual behavior is well documented in the social psychology literature. People's behavior, as it relates to environmental change, is influenced by the behavior of their peers and social norms what they perceive to be acceptable to others Black, Stern, amp Elworth, 1985 Cialdini, Reno, amp Kallgren, 1990 Darley, 1978 Jones, 1990 Kahle amp Beatty, 1987 Stern, Dietz, amp Black, 1986 Vining amp Ebreo, 1990 . Social approval and disapproval can play roles...

Micmac Indians and French Settlement in the Northeast

A second case of ecological transformation in the New World is that of the hunting gathering fishing cultures of the Northeast, such as the Abenaki of northern Maine, the St. John's River Malecite, and the Micmac of southeastern Canada, all of whom shared a common culture. The Micmac lived in the area known as the Gaspe peninsula, south of Newfoundland, Labrador, and the St. Lawrence River. Micmac hunting, like that of other cultures in the Northeast, was based primarily on large animals, such...

Influences on River Responses

Fiji Flooding Viti Levu

High-magnitude rainfalls delivered by tropical cyclones normally produce extraordinarily big discharges in Pacific island rivers Figs. 9.4 and 9.5 . The nature of a river's response depends primarily on three groups of influences, which are discussed below. The first group are the meteorological characteristics of an individual tropical cyclone, such as the organisation of its cloud bands, speed of movement and the corresponding patterns in precipitation. The second set of factors are those...

Brief History of Alternative Fuels

The history of alternative fuels goes back to the very first days of the car industry. In 1900, more than half the cars were running on ethanol, steam, and electricity.9 Many of Karl Benz's early diesel engines ran on peanut oil, a biofuel. Henry Ford's first car ran on alcohol, and his wife, Clara, drove an electric vehicle. Thomas Edison invested considerable time and money in improving batteries. Electric vehicles were the safest, quietest cars on the road. Back then, petroleum fuels were...

The Coriolis Effect And The Oceans

Coriolis Effect Demonstration

So far we have considered ocean temperature and salinity, two of the factors controlling currents in the sea, which in turn govern coastal climates. A third factor is the 'Coriolis effect', the 'apparent deflection of moving objects, due to the observer being on a rotating Earth', named after Gaspard de Coriolis 1792-1843 . Unfortunately, it is not easy to understand immediately, being different from commonsense observation, and so various explanations are offered in what follows. As a...

Formation Of Precipitation

The puzzle of raindrop formation has already been noted. The simple growth of cloud droplets by condensation is apparently an inadequate mechanism and more complex processes have to be envisaged. Various early theories of raindrop growth can be discounted. Proposals were that differently charged droplets could coalesce by electrical attraction, but it appears that distances between drops are too great and the difference between the electrical charges too small for this to happen. It was...

Straussian Governance Conspiracy Inside the Pentagon

Trauma Activation Guidelines

One of the reasons I left was my sense that they were using the intelligence from the CIA and other agencies only when it fit their agenda. They didn't like the intelligence they were getting, and so they brought in people to write the stuff. They were so crazed and so far out and so difficult to reason with to the point of being bizarre. Dogmatic, as if they were on a mission from God. If it doesn't fit their theory, they don't want to accept it. Former CIA official interviewed by Seymour...

Oxygen in the ocean

Oxygen is in a state of super-saturation in surface waters, mostly because of entrainment of bubbles from breaking waves (see 2.9.2). As these bubbles of air are carried below the surface, the increase in pressure forces gas into solution. Hence not only oxygen but most atmospheric gases are slightly supersaturated at the ocean surface. There is also biological production of oxygen in parts of the water column where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis Fig. 3.8. Geographical...

Actinic Flux

Sunlight drives the chemistry of the atmosphere by dissociating a number of molecules into fragments that are often highly reactive. Whether a molecule can be dissociated in the atmosphere depends on the probability of an encounter between a photon of appropriate energy and the molecule. The radiative quantity pertinent for photochemical reactions is the photon flux incident on the molecule from all directions, since it does not matter to the molecule from which direction a photon comes. The...

Conceptual models

Conceptual Model Geography

A conceptual model is an abstract representation designed to articulate the processes operating in a system of interest. A conceptual model may take narrative form and use words to describe the system at hand, but with their long spatial science tradition, geographers have frequently drawn on geometry and graphical forms of visual representation to render their conceptual models. For instance, Figure 12.1 provides a schematic diagram of the physical processes involved in maintaining the earth's...

Disadvantages Of Planet Earth

There are some downsides to using biomass, including Air pollution. Biomass emits greenhouse gases when it's used to generate fuel. If the carbon isn't offset by replanting crops, biomass contributes to global warming. Direct burning of biomass also releases particulates, although these can be minimized with an emission control system. Energy use. It takes energy to plant, grow, harvest, and transport the crops used for biomass. Unless these activities are done responsibly, biomass can use up...

Methanol Storage and Distribution

Methanol Storage

In parallel to the development of methanol-fueled vehicles, a widespread distribution network for methanol will have to be established to make it as easily available for the consumer as are petroleum-based fuels today. While the passage from ICE to fuel cell-powered methanol vehicles represents a radical technological change, the development of a fueling infrastructure to fuel them is not. Refueling stations dispensing methanol will be almost identical to today's fueling stations, reflecting...

Surface pressure conditions

Tropical Easterly Jet Stream Map

The most permanent features of the mean sea-level pressure maps are the oceanic subtropical high-pressure cells Figures 7.9 and 7.10 . These anticyclones are located at about 30 latitude, suggestively situated below the mean subtropical jet stream. They move a few degrees equatorward in winter and poleward in summer in response to the seasonal expansion and contraction of the two circumpolar vortices. In the northern hemisphere, the subtropical ridges of high pressure weaken over the heated...

Measurement

Aneroid Barometers Flexible Membrane

There are several ways of determining the barometric pressure. It used to be measured most commonly with a mercury barometer, with a column of mercury (Figure 1.6) replacing a similar device using water, invented by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643. (Mercury is 13.6 times more dense than water and as a result a more convenient column only about 760 mm Figure 1.6 A mercury barometer, in which the atmospheric pressure on the leather washer is balanced by that exerted by the column of mercury....

Meanders In The Jet Stream

Jet Stream Meanders

The jet stream flows in an irregular path, not straight around the world at one latitude. An experiment can be conducted to demonstrate this effect on a small scale, using a rotating pan, ice, water, and a heating element. The pan is filled with water of a moderate temperature. A container of ice water is placed at the center of the pan, and the heating element is placed under the periphery of the pan, all the way around Fig. 2-5 . This sets up a battle between cold water and hot water....

Why The Atmosphere Flows

Thique Culture Religieuse

We live at the bottom of a layer of gas that covers the Earth the atmosphere. The Earth orbits the Sun about every 365 days and spins on an axis that is tilted about 23 degrees from the axis of its elliptic orbit (Figure 1.2). It is this tilt that is responsible for the change of seasons. When the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, it is northern hemisphere summer, and likewise for the southern hemisphere (Figure 1.2). FIGURE 1.1 The Sun-Earth system. The Earth is spinning on its...

Warm airmasses

Mapa Hemisferio Oriental Para Imprimir

These have their origins in the subtropical high-pressure cells and, during the summer season, in the bodies of warm surface air that characterize the heart of large land areas. The tropical (T) sources are (1) maritime (mT), originating in the oceanic subtropical high-pressure cells (2) continental (cT), either originating from the continental parts of these subtropical cells (e.g. as does the North African Harmattan) or (3) associated with regions of generally light variable winds, assisted...

Atmospheric motion principles

When you have read this chapter you will Know the basic laws of horizontal motion in the atmosphere, Know how the Coriolis force arises and its effects, Be able to define the geostrophic wind, Know how friction modifies wind velocity in the boundary layer, Understand the principles of divergence convergence and vorticity and their roles in atmospheric processes, Understand the thermodynamic, dynamic and topographic factors that lead to distinctive local wind regimes. The atmosphere is in...

Atmospheric Energy And Horizontal Heat Transport

Poleward Heat Transfer

So far, we have given an account of the earth's heat budget and its components. We have already referred to two forms of energy internal or heat energy, due to the motion of individual air molecules, and latent energy, which is released by condensation of water vapour. Two other forms of energy are important geopotential energy due to gravity and height above the surface, and kinetic energy associated with air motion. Geopotential and internal energy are interrelated, since the addition of heat...

Ocean Currents

Wind Driven Surface Currents Gyres

Not only do oceans affect climate, but regions with a maritime or partial maritime climate are influenced by the temperature of the nearby ocean. For example, cool, foggy San Francisco weather is affected by The concept of latent heat answers important questions about climate. For example, why is March cooler than September in the Northern Hemisphere, even though at any given location the two months have the same day length and the same solar radiation March is cooler because much of the Sun's...

Acid Rain And The Terrestrial Environment

Acid Rain Impacted Forests Ontario

Terrestrial ecosystems take much longer to show the effects of acid rain than aquatic ecosystems. As a result, the nature and magnitude of the impact of acid precipitation on the terrestrial environment has been recognized only recently. As early as 1965, however, air pollution was known to be killing oak and pine trees on Leo Tolstoy's historic estate at Yosnaya Polyana Goldman 1971 . There is growing evidence that those areas in which the waterbodies have already succumbed to acidification...

Energy and the environment

There is little doubt that the large-scale utilization of fossil fuels is putting significant stress on the environment. The effects of combustion products on air quality and the climate are both local and global in nature. The local effects, primarily in the form of air pollution and smog formation in large urban areas, have been known for many decades, and in recent years government regulations to reduce the effects of air pollution have been significantly strengthened. These include both...

Determining The Evaporation Rate

The rate of evaporation from water or land surfaces can be measured in several ways. The following are a few examples. 1 The change of water level is a direct index of evaporation and routinely measured at many weather stations, generally with an American 'Class-A' evaporation pan (or evaporimeter) shown in Figure 4.6 and Plate 4.1. The rate of evaporation from this standard device is known as the pan evaporation rate, Ep. For a lake or reservoir, one may construct a water balance (Chapter 10)....

The Atmospheric Gases

Atmospheric Environmental Issues

The constituents of the atmosphere are collectively referred to as air, although air itself is not a specific gaseous element, rather it is a mixture of individual gases each of which retains its own particular properties. Although traces of atmospheric gases have been detected well out into space, 99 per cent of the mass of the atmosphere lies within 30 km of the earth's surface, and 50 per cent is concentrated in the lowest 5 km. Most of the world's weather develops in these lower layers, but...

E hhxi E hxo

Aircraft Electrical System

Where m is the mass flow rate and x is mass concentration of LiBr in the solution. The first law of thermodynamics yields the energy balance of each component of the absorption system as follows E m.h i - E hh o EQ - EQo W 0 6.70 An overall energy balance of the system requires that the sum of the generator, evaporator, condenser, and absorber heat transfer must be 0. If the absorption system model assumes that the system is in a steady state and that the pump work and environmental heat losses...

The frontalwave depression

Initial Stage Mid Latitude Cyclones

A depression also termed a low or cyclone see Note 2 is an area of relatively low pressure, with a more or less circular isobaric pattern. It covers an area 1500 to 3000 km in diameter and usually has a life span of four to seven days. Systems with these characteristics, which are prominent on daily weather maps, are referred to as synoptic-scale features. The mid-latitude depression is usually associated with the convergence of contrasting Figure 9.7 Four stages in the typical development of a...

Climate change will do more than just raise the temperature

The path from climate change to conflict will not be a direct one. For that matter, most roads to conflict are indirect and lie in structural and behavioral patterns that make the path easier to travel. There are three structural pathways from climate change to armed conflict sustained trends, intervening variables, and the need for conflict triggers. First, conflict only emerges after a sustained period of divergent climate patterns. People can survive aberrant, short-term climate change...

The Earths Internal Energy

Earth Internal Layers

The interior of our earth is full of heat, noise, and movement in a word, it is brimming with energy. To understand what is happening, we must consider the earth's structure it consists of several layers in the form of spherical shells surrounding a core the layers differ from each other chemically and physically. Figure 14.1a shows a section of how the earth would appear if it were sliced open through the center figure 14.1b is an enlargement of the outermost part showing more detail. Each...

Hydrogen Distribution And Onboard Storage

Rehydrogenation Borohydrides

11.3.1 Hydrogen Distribution Systems It is arguable that in no other area is the scale of the challenge faced by a transition to a hydrogen economy greater than in the transport sector. This is because the FIGURE 11.4 Scheme of an integrated model of a hydrogen distribution system. FIGURE 11.4 Scheme of an integrated model of a hydrogen distribution system. difficulties posed are not only the technical problems of production, common to all sectors, but there is the added complication of...

The Mediterranean

Global Mediterranean Type Climate

The characteristic west coast climate of the subtropics is the Mediterranean type with hot, dry summers and mild, relatively wet winters. It is interposed between the temperate maritime type and the arid subtropical desert climate. The boundary between the temperate maritime climate of western Europe and that of the Mediterranean can be delimited on the basis of the seasonality of rainfall. However, another diagnostic feature is the relatively sharp increase in solar radiation across a zone...

Internal and External Recycling

Most people associate recycling with items such as newspapers, magazines, plastics, aluminum, and glass. The recovery, reprocessing, and reuse of materials from used items is called external recycling and requires public participation. A second type of recycling, internal recycling, is the reuse of waste materials from manufacturing and does not involve the general public. For example, the manufacture production of copper items results in wasted copper pieces with internal recycling, these...

Regional patterns of climate change

So far we have been presenting global climate change in terms of likely increases in global average surface temperature that provide a useful overall indicator of the magnitude of climate change. In terms of regional implications, however, a global average conveys rather little information. What is required is spatial detail. It is in the regional or local changes that the effects and impacts of global climate change will be felt. Figure 6.6 Projected pattern average of surface temperature...

Environmental Issues Global Warming In 1975

1975 Environment

Source After Houghton et al. (1990) example, the nature and rate of industrial development, the extent to which the earth's forests continue to be destroyed and the success of programmes aimed at reducing the output of CO2. Most studies have based their predictions on several scenarios, one of which is commonly a direct projection of the status quo the IPCC 'business-as-usual' scenario, for example with others based on either increase or decreases in CO2 and combinations of other gases (Bolin...

Jet Streams And The Weather

Now, clearly, we are speaking here of average atmospheric and oceanic motions in some sense. There are many smaller scale motions that are very important, for example, sea breezes or the flows over mountainous terrain. Two very important features of atmospheric motions that I have not mentioned are the atmospheric jet streams. Jet streams are relatively narrow, very high velocity air currents that exist high in the atmosphere.5 Before about the middle of the 20th century, little was known about...

Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Diesel Fuels Substitute in Compression Ignition Engines

Japanese Volvo Bus Images

Methanol, when combusted, does not produce smoke, soot or particulates. Parti-culate matter - whether carcinogenic compounds are absorbed onto them, or not - have been identified as a significant health hazard, especially in large cities. Diesel fuel generally produces particles during combustion. This, and the fact that methanol produces very low emissions of NOx because it burns at lower temperatures, makes methanol attractive as a substitute for diesel fuel 123 . Diesel engines are quite...

Other Fuel Types

The focus here has been on UO2, which is the usual fuel for LWRs. Other fuel types are of interest, however, even if not widely used at present (see, e.g., Ref. 1 ). Possibilities include the following Mixed-oxide fuel (MOX). MOX fuel, a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, uses plutonium in order to exploit its energy content, reduce the stocks of potential weapons materials, or both (see Section 9.4.2). Metal alloy fuels. Metallic fuel, in the form of alloys of uranium, provide an...

Wave Energy

Wave Nature Energy

Waves have cropped up in several contexts in this book. Chapter 7 described ocean waves or more generally waves moving across a surface. Chapter 15 mentioned earthquake waves. Sound waves have appeared in a variety of contexts, for example, the roar of thunder and of landslides and the crash of breaking waves. Solar radiation, the chief source of energy at the earth's surface, has been touched on in contexts too numerous to list likewise the infrared radiation emitted by sun-warmed land and...

Wadi Kubbaniya And The Kom Ombo Plain

The burial was of an adult male, 1.73m tall and 35 to 40 years old at the time of death. According to the arm and chest bones, he was disabled during his last years. This is interpreted as reflecting social commitment to such members of the local group. All of this raises interesting questions about the degree of social organisation among people living in coastal sites during the LGM that now lie below the waves. 3.14 WADI KUBBANIYA AND THE KOM OMBO PLAIN In...

US Dollar Fiat Currency or Oil Backed Currency

What the powerful men grouped around the Bilderberg had evidently decided that May 1973 was to launch a colossal assault against industrial growth in the world, in order to tilt the balance of power back to the advantage of Anglo-American financial interests and the dollar. In order to do this, they determined to use their most prized weapon control of the world's oil flows. On September 24, 2000, Saddam Hussein emerged from a meeting of his government and proclaimed that Iraq would soon...

Land and sea breezes

Sea Land Breezes Typical Scales

Another thermally induced wind regime is the land and sea breeze see Figure 6.11 . The vertical expansion of the air column that occurs during daytime heating over the more rapidly heated land see Chapter 3B.5 tilts the isobaric surfaces downward at the coast, causing onshore winds at the surface and a compensating offshore movement aloft. Typical land-sea pressure differences are of the order of 2 mb. At night, the air over the sea is warmer and the situation is reversed, although this...

How stable has past climate been

Last Dryas Period

The major climate changes considered so far in this chapter have taken place relatively slowly. The growth and recession of the large polar ice-sheets between the ice ages and the intervening warmer interglacial periods have taken on average many thousands of years. However, the ice core records such as those in Figures 4.6 and 4.8 show evidence of large and relatively rapid fluctuations. Ice cores from Greenland provide more detailed evidence of these than those from Antarctica. This is...

The bare rock model

Bare Rock Model

The temperature of the surface of the Earth is controlled by the ways that energy comes in from the Sun and shines back out to space as IR. The Sun shines a lot of light because the temperature at the visible surface of the Sun is high and therefore the energy flux I sa T4 is a large number. Sunlight strikes the Earth and deposits some of its energy into the form of vibrations and other bouncings around of the molecules of the Earth. Neither the Earth nor the Sun is a perfect blackbody, but...

Distributions of Climate Variables

3.0.1 The Components of the Climate System. The climate system is composed of all processes that directly or indirectly control the atmospheric environment of humans and ecosystems. The main components of the system are the hydro- and thermodynamic states of the atmosphere and the ocean. Sea ice affects the exchange of heat, momentum and fresh water between oceans and atmosphere. On longer time scales, the shelf ice and the land ice become relevant since these components are able to store and...

Case Study Intensity of Tropical Cyclone Ofa February

Tropical Cyclone Ofa in early February 1990 was a devastating event for several South Pacific nations Fig. 5.10 . The storm initially developed over Tuvalu on 27 January as a depression within the South Pacific Convergence Zone. It rapidly intensified to hurricane strength as it moved south southeast near the Samoan islands with sustained winds greater than 118 km h-1. Samoa was severely affected from 3 to 4 February. Winds became very destructive, lasting for almost 24 h, with rain continuous...

Paleoclimatic Information From Inorganic Material In Ocean Cores

Weathering and erosion processes in different climatic zones may result in characteristic inorganic products. When these are carried to the oceans (by wind, rivers, or floating ice) and deposited in offshore sediments, they convey information about the climate of adjacent continental regions, or about the oceanic and or atmospheric circulation, at the time of deposition (McManus, 1970 Kolla et al., 1979). On continental margins, the bulk of sediment is deposited by rivers, but in remote areas...

Circulation of the Wind

Supergeostrophic Winds

Another factor affects any global wind that takes Figure 12.8 The apparent deflection of a parcel of air moving from a belt of high pressure in the southern hemisphere, e.g. from the band of subtropical high pressures. The parcel is assumed stationary initially. As soon as it starts to move, it suffers a sideways Coriolis force, increasing in proportion to its acceleration. The force deflects the parcel until it is travelling along an isobar, with a constant speed such that the Coriolis force...

The Balkan peninsula

Roman Hydrology

The Mediterranean climate in the Balkan Peninsula is limited to the coastal area and the island region. On the Adriatic coast, the average winter temperature is moderate, except for the northern region where continental cold air is introduced by the Bora wind. In July, the average temperature is 23-25 C because of maritime influences. In the coastal area, precipitation is heavy. For instance, some places in Yugoslavia receive more than 4000 mm of rain annually. On the western mountain slopes...

Acknowledgments For Air Pollution

I would like to thank, above all, the scientists who have dedicated their lives to the study of the Earth, especially those engaged in the important work of understanding how human activities are impacting the planet. Many thanks to the staff of Facts On File and Chelsea House for their guidance and editing expertise Frank Darmstadt, Executive Editor Brian Belval, Senior Editor and Leigh Ann Cobb, independent developmental editor. Dr. Tobi Zausner located the color images that illustrate our...

Hydrogen for Fuel Cells from Methanol Reforming

Methanol Reformer

In seeking to overcome the problems associated with hydrogen storage and distribution, numerous approaches have set out to use liquids rich in hydrogen such as gasoline or methanol as a source of hydrogen via on-board reformers. In contrast to pure hydrogen-based systems, they are compact containing on a volume basis more hydrogen than even liquid hydrogen and easy to store and handle without pressurization. The possibility of generating hydrogen with more than 80 efficiency by the on-board...

Deontological environmental ethics

This extract comes from a chapter on normative ethics in a book on environmental philosophy. Robert Elliot discussed human-centred, non-human-centred and consequentialist environmental ethics before this section and virtue-based environmental ethics afterwards. Deontological ethical theories tend to focus on 'doing what's right' and on moral duties, principles, rules and rights, largely independent of consequences. Historically the ideas of Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 about morality as a matter of...

The Lauderdale Paradox

In 1819, James Maitland, Lord Lauderdale, reasoned that any good that nature provides plentifully and freely, no one has any reason to purchase. It cannot fetch a price in a competitive market, even where markets for it exist, and so it has no exchange value - this is, no one can get anything in exchange for it. The result is a paradox. The more freely and lavishly nature benefits us, the lower the price the marginal unit of a natural product or service will fetch or, to say the same thing in...

National Geographic

Large Transverse Dunes

To read about how wind has shaped desert landscapes, read the National Geographic Expedition on page 898. Figure 8.17 Great Sand Dunes National Monument, in southern Colorado, contains North America's highest sand dunes of more than 228.6 m. Identify the dominant direction of wind in the figure. to move from one location to another Dunes migrate as wind blows over sand Figure 8.17 Great Sand Dunes National Monument, in southern Colorado, contains North America's highest sand dunes of more than...

Outline of interview structure

The main purpose of a cognitive research interview is to discover the knowledge content of a person's mind. The interview itself should attempt not to change existing knowledge but only to retrieve it. Inferences in recall should be kept to a minimum. At the same time the problem of forgetting has to be dealt with and here, the positive and negative effects of part listings have to be traded off. As a consequence of these considerations, some structure has to be imposed on the interview...

The Greening of Job Sectors

The following is a rough overview that lists a cross-section of professional fields and a sampling of ways that environmental concerns are influencing them. These categories of professional fields intersect, and many are rapidly changing. The field of environmental justice is one example. It is part public health, part law, part communications, part finance, part community development, and part nonprofit work as it addresses such issues as crime, violence, and the disproportionate number of...

Influenza Pandemics

Modern hygiene, nationwide and worldwide inoculation, constant monitoring of infectious outbreaks, and emergency vaccinations have either completely eliminated or drastically reduced a number of previously lethal, deeply injurious, or widely discomforting epidemic diseases, including cholera, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, smallpox, tuberculosis, and typhoid. I hasten to add that these have been battles with no assured permanence. Pertussis (whooping cough) is coming back among children too...

A Hurricanes and typhoons

Cumulonimbus Clouds Air Circulation

The most notorious type of cyclone is the hurricane or typhoon . Some eighty or so cyclones each year are responsible, on average, for 20,000 fatalities, as well as causing immense damage to property and a serious shipping hazard, due to the combined effects of high winds, high seas, flooding from the heavy rainfall and coastal storm surges. Considerable attention has been given to forecasting their development and movement, so their origin and structure are beginning to be understood....

Martes Species A

Dog Metaconid

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room DMNH 33949 fragmentary R jaw with alveoli pl-4 G 0, 5, 6, 7, L30 34570 R Ml G 0, 5, 6, 7, L 30 . Mark's Sink 34569 fragmentary R maxilla with P4 8 96 36681 L jaw with alveoli c-ml L19, 7 97 39563 fragmentary L Ml 124, 7 97 40243 R c 8 96 40244 R C 8 96 40266 R c L22, 7 97 . Ferret Room DMNH 2277l skull fragments. Generator Dome DMNH L c Ll . Gypsum Room CM 48439 L ml. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Two diagnostic teeth, P4 and Ml, of a true marten subgenus Martes were...

The Atmospheric Capacitor

Capacitor World From The Ionosphere

The earth is a fairly good conductor of electricity. So is the upper part of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere. The air between these two conducting regions, in the troposphere where most weather occurs and in the stratosphere, is a poor conductor of electric current. When a poor conductor is sandwiched in between two layers having better conductivity, the result is a capacitor. A capacitor has the ability to store an electrostatic charge. This produces a potential difference voltage...

The Production and Uses of Hydrogen

Methanol Economy

Today, hydrogen is used for the most part on a large scale as a feedstock in the chemical and petrochemical industry, to produce principally ammonia, refined petroleum products and a wide variety of chemicals. Its utilizations also include the metallurgic, electronic, and pharmaceutical industries (Fig. 9.4). Except as a propellant for rockets and space shuttles, hydrogen is still rarely used today as a fuel. Industrial facilities often build their own hydrogen production unit to ensure secure...

The development of wind power in selected European countries

Installed Wind Power Country

Figure 7.1 displays the development of wind power capacity in five Western European countries. The choice of countries is motivated, first of all, by the fact that the development of wind power differs among these countries. Germany, Denmark and, more recently, Spain have all experienced considerable increases in the installed capacity of wind turbines, while the corresponding developments in Sweden and the UK have been more modest. For instance, in 1991, Spain and the UK had more or less the...

With a little help from microbes

Imagens Kakapo

Animals cannot produce the enzyme cellulase, so they are unable to digest the cellulose which, as we have seen, makes up the bulk of the tissues of plants. Nor, consequently, can they readily gain access to the nutritious contents of cellulose-walled cells of plants. So it is not surprising to find that many herbivores have evolved a variety of associations with micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi and protozoans, which are able to digest cellulose. Such associations markedly increase the...