Project Management Templates

PM Milestone Business Templates

The PM Milestone Project Management and Business Templates, Plans, Tools, Forms and Guides is a comprehensive package consisting of more than 7000 tried and tested Site Management and Business documents. These professional tools will give you the daily resources to deliver projects from conception to closeout, ensuring the same rigour that goes into the selection of your project ensures the successful delivery of it. The documents have been created to look professional and will most certainly save you time and money as well as a lot of frustration and heart ache. Your time is too valuable to spend hours searching the Internet or building your own project management documents from scratch. With the power of our PM Milestone, youll get professional, high-quality results at a fraction of the time and cost. All documents have been written by experienced consultants, who have drawn upon years of experience across a wide range of organizations. Read more here...

PM Milestone Project Management Templates Overview

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Contents: 7000 Project Management Templates
Author: Hassan Eliwa, Yosif Limited
Official Website: www.pmmilestone.com

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My PM Milestone Project Management Templates Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

The Standard Tools of Program and Project Management

In order to achieve a tightly planned project, there is a need, in addition to the tools for the steering committee, for tight day-by-day and month-by-month management of the change process. This management starts at the high level with the management goals for society, set by the steering committee, and the application of a method for change management and tools to support this process. Such tools are available and they are used already in order to drive change in large companies and in public organizations. The current debate in society, which is based on the argument that a market approach to the energy transformation is preferable, overlooks the need for planned change efforts on the level of society. In order to assist in the preparation for an insight that will probably be inevitable, a number of tools are listed below, which describe their purpose and how they can used. Those readers who are already familiar with change management projects may have encountered some of the...

For The Implementation Item in the list of tools for project managers and participants

One important task of the managers of streams in the program, will, at this point, be to break the overall plans of the program down to more detailed strategic and operational plans for the particular projects that each stream will contain. Each project manager then needs to break her project down into subprojects or project phases and make detailed plans for those.

A Communication Strategy Item in the list of tools for project managers and participants

In this respect, GE applies the rule of thumb that any person, who is going to participate in a change program or project, needs to receive information seven times each, from seven different persons in the organization. This way, a person not only receives information, say, from the project manager. She also receives information from the marketing manager, regarding how the change affects the marketing department, from the purchasing manager, regarding the impact of the change on purchasing and logistics, and from the R& D manager, regarding the aspects related to R& D. From each manager, each person not only receives information, but they also get the opportunity to ask questions when they have thought the matters through, and they get the opportunity to have another discussion with these different persons, when the project has been in progress for some time. All in all, the point is not that each person needs to be informed exactly 49 times, in the pattern described above. The...

The Tools Of Program Or Project Management

As we move from the level of visions and values, we need to realize that a change process that needs to encompass the whole of society is, by definition, complex. In order for all streams and projects within a program to be managed in the same way, according to the same principles and values, a set of tools for program and project management needs to be put in place and used by project managers and participants. Such a set of tools will reduce the risk of individual idiosyncrasies of managers, or differences in administrative competence and drive, impacting the result of projects. 1. Overall goals that need to be determined for the project and broken down for lower levels of project management within the same project.

Leed Documentation Costs

The requirement for LEED documentation could cost between 25,000 and 50,000 for team coordination and LEED project management services. Whether it's performed in-house at an architecture firm or done with outside consultants, there is a higher level of effort required to coordinate all the design team members and to keep the LEED aspects of the project on track. As LEED becomes fully integrated into design practice over the next half-decade, you can expect the costs for LEED project coordination, documentation and certification services to diminish, but not disappear altogether.

The Tools Of A Steering Committee

In order to be able to take on the responsibility of steering the important projects within a stream, or in order to take on the steering of the program or the streams themselves, the steering committee, or the management teams that may be appointed by the government agency that becomes responsible for managing the program, will need access to a number of tools and resources for this task. In the case of transformation projects in companies or at lower levels in communities or regions, I still think in terms of a steering committee and the tools presented here are relevant for use in these situations as well. The individuals of the steering committee will not, in most cases, work with the tools, themselves. They are more likely to assign the completion of analyses and plans to program or project management or to consultants, and oversee the process of analysis, strategy development and planning performed by project management. The steering committee will also decide about strategies,...

Guidelines For Strategic Priorities And Resource Allocation Item on the list of tools for Steering Committees

In a large program, inevitably, some projects or subprojects are more important than others. There will be technologies that have the potential of delivering larger savings faster than others. More resources and tighter project management may be allocated to such technologies, than to less promising projects. In the case of unexpected delays in very promising projects, the steering committee may want to investigate options to rapidly change aspects of a project plan or the intended configuration of a product, so that the obstacle could be removed. Such rapid reorientation of projects can only be achieved if project plans, in addition to the plans themselves and breakdown into subprojects, also included a priority for each plan, and the alternative routes available to solve particularly knotty or time-critical problems.

Short Term Improvements

To some extent, we have the opportunity to use transportation resources more efficiently. In many cases, trucks run empty on return trips, because of the difficulty of selling free space on a return journey. Other contributing factors are the tight supply schedules of lean companies that require just-in-time delivery of goods. Up until now it has been seen as less important to save money on transportation than to reduce the lead times of production and logistics processes. This makes it more attractive to buy transportation space at full price than to use low-priced empty trips. One of the short-term savings opportunities for a steering committee in the transportation stream could be to set a goal for better utilization of transportation space. Using the line of argument that has already been used for behavior change earlier in the book, it is less clear than in the case of hybrid drivelines and renewable fuels, how such a project should be run, and which tools that are available to a...

Energy And Atmosphere Credit Optimize Energy Performance

Energy efficiency is a big credit in most high-performance projects and no short analysis will do justice to the complexities involved. In this case, we look at upgrading the building envelope and lighting systems, as against improving the efficiency of the HVAC systems and getting daylight into the building (Table 8.6). Figure 8.5 shows how we can analyze these complex measures with the EVA tool in the Ecologic3 project management software. The payback period for the envelope

Change Based on Large Scale Technologies

This type of project is very large, but it requires a completely different type of administration, and project management, compared to small-scale technology projects. It could be argued that they also contain a different type of complexity, since they mainly involve technology companies and the management of technology development and production. The projects would represent a number of large-scale construction projects in a number of different geographical locations. These projects could also involve the manufacture of production resources for the necessary renewable fuels.

Visions Values and Mental Models in the Energy Transformation Program

The steering committee of the program and of projects within the program needs to keep these goals in mind and provide visions and help in the formulation of values, together with project management and employees, which can help drive the program toward the achievement of overall goals. How pressing must the deadlines for technology, and product development, be How rapidly must production resources be built in order to achieve sufficient market penetration, to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the rate that is needed, or faster What are the visions for new technology development and economic growth In which way is the government, or the steering committees of the program, supposed to plan the development and assign roles to participating companies Should government tenders be made official for competitive bidding by companies that have the right skills and resources, or should government agencies deliberately select the companies where they want to place development...

Box The rise of the oilfieldservices companies

In areas where national oil companies are looking for arrangements other than exploration concessions, production sharing or joint ventures, oilfield-services companies offer an alternative form of partnership and, in so doing, compete with the international companies. In addition to providing a growing range of advanced technologies and services, oilfield-services companies are now able to offer integrated project-management services and even turnkey operations.

Strengthening strategic partnerships

The super-majors, with their project-management experience and technical expertise, are particularly well placed to help national companies develop liquefied natural gas projects and complex gas fields, as well as deploy enhanced oil recovery techniques. For example, Chevron won a production-sharing contract with PetroChina in 2007 to develop the onshore Chuandongbei gas field in the Sichuan Basin, which is high in sulphur and carbon dioxide, is relatively wet and suffers from low rock permeability. In 2007, under a similar agreement, Shell started producing gas from the remote Changbei field, which has tight gas reservoirs requiring advanced technology to boost recovery rates. Although national companies can buy many new technologies off the shelf and hire oilfield-services companies to deploy them, the international companies still lead

New Trend The Integrated Office

Internally, it's easy to get people involved in the integrated design process because we've been talking about this for a long time. It's being driven by two things One, we know that this integrated approach will lead to better buildings and architecture and the second is that market forces want buildings delivered in different ways, whether that be design build, integrated project management, or using Building Information Modeling (BIM). The market place is leading the discussions, We want projects delivered differently. We want the design world to work differently.

The Transformation Program

As already indicated, the complexity of energy transformation arises from a number of different dimensions of the issue and the possible measures. There is no single solution that could solve the entire problem in a few years. The different aspects range from technology change and behavior change to the choice between large-scale and small-scale technologies, and the problem of managing a number of efforts toward goals that need to be both short- and long-term. There is also the problem related to the interrelationships between technologies. If we use less oil, we need more biofuels, electricity or other more radically new technology alternatives. We need to be able to handle the development of some, while we reduce our dependence on others. The issues are to some extent technical, but they are also related to economics, business and project management.

The importance of offset quality

To ensure that actual emissions reductions are achieved, in the jargon of the offset world, it is necessary to prove a project's emissions reductions are 'additional' that is, that the project would not have occurred irrespective of greenhouse gas considerations, or under a 'business-as-usual' scenario. If the project underlying the offsets would have occurred anyway, then atmospheric greenhouse gas levels will not actually be reduced from what they would have been, and the emissions go unmitigated. For this reason, project-based emissions reductions should come from projects that are clearly beyond the business-as-usual scenario. Additionality, as the primary determinant of the beyond business-as-usual case, can only be assured through the application of stringent project review processes, procedures, standards and criteria.

Platinum Project Profile

My experience is that most groups of professionals on a design team speak about integrated design but they really don't know what it is. Even on a high-level LEED project, there's still a very clear firewall between many of the disciplines that come together on a project. We try to break that down by gathering as many of the people involved with the project from the start, right through to occupancy and maintenance. We get everyone into a room at the project initiation and discuss the values, goals, and processes that we're going to be using in order to move the design process forward in a sensible fashion.*

Bringing Climate Change to Work

Many of these tasks mean taking an issue to a project manager or a boss, or even to the director of maintenance or facilities management. Forming a committee or advisory team with your colleagues can make you more effective and successful you can find strength and support in numbers.

Research Analysis and Decision Making

During the charrette it is common to identify a number of items as maybes. Immediately after the charrette, the team should focus on determining whether these items are or are not a good fit for the project. Making these decisions requires research into whether the item is truly applicable to or feasible for the project and what additional costs are involved. Of particular importance are the major building systems. The mechanical engineer or green building consultant should prepare an initial energy analysis using RemRate, EnergyPlus, or other ResNet-compliant modeling software. Two or three optional approaches for the major energy systems and building envelope should be modeled to determine what approach is most energy-efficient. Combining this information with cost data from the contractor enables the project manager to give direction to the architect, mechanical engineer, and structural engineer about what system to pursue.

Myth Internal emissions reductions are more credible than offsets

Accounting systems for carbon credits have become increasingly sophisticated. Project proponents must now demonstrate that they have considered a number of baseline scenarios the impacts of the project outside the project boundaries have to be properly accounted for (leakage) an appropriate monitoring plan has to be developed and followed (exactly) and the outputs must be independently verified in order for credits to be issued. In addition, project documentation is made public and open to third party challenge.

Pounding Nails What to Know When Construction Begins

In most states you can be your own general contractor without a license, but going this route isn't a good idea, even if you know what you're doing and have the time and organizational skills to pull it off. (Many people who have decided to go it alone have regretted it simply because the project takes so much time and energy.)

Enhancement of executive function development

76 evaluated Tools of the Mind, a comprehensive preschool curriculum designed to enhance executive function development, which is particularly relevant to ADHD given reported impairments in time management and organizational skills in children with ADHD 15 . Tools of the Mind is grounded in established developmental theory and was developed based on Luria's

From movement intellectuals to network brokers

The kinds of skill and knowledge that are valuable in most of these undertakings and types of brokerage are strikingly different from those that come into play in movement settings. The organizational competence that is intrinsic to network-building tends to be operational, while the movement intellectual tends to be more inspirational, even charismatic, in his or her way of functioning. Making a network like GIN is a matter of fund-raising, public relations, negotiating, and enroling other people into one's particular organizational concept. A movement intellectual is more an articulator of a not-yet-formulated vision (Eyerman and Jamison 1991). Rather than possessing organizational skills, the movement intellectual has what might be termed synthetic skills, fusing disparate knowledge forms into new combinations. Both are hybrids, or trans-disciplinary, but their motivations and criteria for success tend to be somewhat different.

Blowin Up the Energy Charts

The DOE' s report goes on to analyze developments in the wind market, including trends in wind installations, turbine size and prices, project costs, and cost comparisons between wind power and conventional generation. It also describes developer consolidation trends, project financing structures, and trends among the major wind power purchasers. The report also found that wind turbine prices and installed project costs have risen since 2002. Turbine price increases have been driven by factors such as a weak U.S. dollar, higher prices for materials and energy inputs, and shortages in certain turbine components. I'll have more to say on this subject in a moment. Finally, the report showed that wind power is now providing good value in wholesale power markets. Despite rising project costs, wind power has consistently been priced at, or below, the average price of wholesale-priced conventional electricity.

Leed Certification Level

Level of LEED certification sought is clearly an issue. As you move to higher levels of LEED certification, even with an integrated design process, you are likely to add higher cost elements such as green roofs, photovoltaics, and certified wood products. You are also likely to want a larger number of studies in the design phase, including natural ventilation analyses, computational fluid dynamic studies, more frequent energy modeling, and the like. In some cases, nonetheless, we have examples of LEED Platinum being accomplished for zero or low cost premium, considering both design and construction costs, because teams find ways to cut capital costs by right sizing equipment, for example. (Read Leith Sharp's Foreword, for one such example.) For argument's sake, Table 7.1 presents estimates I have found for LEED project costs, including both design and construction. You can find studies with both higher and lower estimates, so please use these numbers only as a rough guide. The cost...

The cost of hydropower

The Chinese government has invested heavily in hydropower over the last decade. Experience there indicates that medium- and large-scale projects can be built for an average cost of around 740 kW. In general smaller projects are relatively more costly, as Table 8.3 indicates. Remote sites such as those in Nepal are also more costly to develop than easily accessible sites. Project costs will also depend on the type of hydropower plant being Table 8.3 Typical hydropower project costs Table 8.3 Typical hydropower project costs

Step Capitalize Lower Operating Costs

Energy performance contracts are used in retrofit projects where the payment for new heating equipment, utility services, or energy-related building improvements depends on the energy savings performance of such improvements. Performance is defined by utility consumption, and is guaranteed by an ESCO or contractor to be sufficiently better than the existing equipment or building conditions. Thus the total cost to the owner will be no higher than if no improvements had been made, while, ultimately, total costs will decrease. Energy cost savings achieved by the retrofit project over the contract term must therefore be sufficient to cover all project costs, including debt service and contractor fees for design, maintenance, monitoring, and profit.

The Drivers behind French Commercial Nuclear Development

Such an ambitious nuclear generation development project costs billions and would have emptied the French coffers unless some creative financing was utilized. Instead of raising taxes and running the risk of a taxpayer revolt, the French devised an innovative strategy to offset part of its ambitious nuclear build program. To raise funds, the French made the decision to build fuel reprocessing facilities with surplus capacity to handle their own needs as well as international demand. As a global reprocessor of nuclear waste, France soon began to reprocess waste from European nations such as Germany and for countries as far away as Japan.While this waste reprocessing strategy resulted in relatively minor protests in France in the 1970s and 1980s, these protests failed to change the government's approach.

High Performance on a Budget

The more developers engage experienced green design and construction firms, the more they require their consultants to produce high-performance results (without excuses), the more likely it is that overall project costs will not exceed costs for a conventional project that does not provide the benefits of a high-level green building.

Incentives and impediments to green buildings

Use good project management and cost management software to show the benefits of various green building measures in real time. Decisions about green building measures are often made quickly, during project meetings that can last all day. Having good information about costs, benefits and ROI can be critical to keeping good green measures under consideration, instead of losing them to strictly cost considerations. Paul Shahriari is the developer of a leading software for green project cost management, Ecologic 3.7 He developed this project management product

Box Modelling oil production in WEO

The projected growth in global oil production is significantly lower than in last year's Outlook (but so, too, is demand). Total oil production in 2030, including non-conventional supplies (but not biofuels) is almost 10 mb d lower than in WEO-2007. This reflects the slower economic growth assumption and the impact on demand of the large upward adjustment in our oil-price assumption. This oil price is, in turn, based on a re-assessment of the prospects for upstream investment in the main resource-rich countries, in light of the large escalation of project costs (see Chapter 13). It now looks much less likely that the key producing countries, in particular, will be willing and able to expand capacity as much and as quickly as previously assumed. Thus, this year's Reference Scenario resembles closely the Deferred Investment Scenario of WEO-2005 (IEA, 2005). As a result, a bigger share of production will need to come from non-OPEC countries, where decline rates and development costs are...

Neuropsychological and adaptive outcomes in children

Brain tumor location is an important factor in outcome, in addition to age and type of treatment. Supratentorial tumors are associated with more significant compromise in neurocognitive functions and overall IQ 50 . There is some evidence that tumors in the third ventricle region are associated with memory deficits 51 secondary to possible involvement of the medial temporal lobe, fornix, and mammillary bodies in this particular location. Studies of children treated for craniopharyngioma have demonstrated problems with memory, organizational skills, and behavioral regulation 52, 53 . Deficits in cognitive and adaptive skills are reported in children with cerebellar tumors who were treated with only surgery 54 . The role of the cerebellum in cognitive processing is beginning to be elucidated as sophisticated techniques have documented pathways between the cerebellum and the frontal lobes 55, 56 . This work has particular relevance in childhood brain tumors given that a substantial...

Box IEA Upstream Investment Cost Index

Cera Index Lng

We have prepared an overall index of upstream capital costs worldwide in US dollars, based on disaggregated data for the different cost components, back to 2000. The aim is to determine the average annual rate of increase in underlying costs incurred directly by operating companies for both exploration and production, stripping out the effect of shifts in spending on different types of upstream projects and regions as well as the impact of changes in drilling productivity (e.g. average well depth). These costs include the acquisition of seismic data, project management, rig hiring, drilling services and the construction of production facilities (including treatment and processing plant, compressors, generators and gathering pipelines). The underlying costs of labour, materials and equipment are incorporated in charges for drilling, related services and facilities.

US Army Corps of Engineers

Army Corps of Engineers (otherwise known as the corps) is the world's largest public, engineering, design, and construction management agency. The corps obtains its authority from the secretary of the army and is a division serving the chief of engineers within the Department of the Army. Funded by Congress, the corps' primary responsibilities include the management and execution of civil works programs in or adjacent to the nation's waterways (e.g., rivers, harbors, and wetlands), administration of environmental laws to protect and preserve these waterways, and the review of applications and issuance of permits for proposed projects affecting such bodies of water. As part of its responsibility, the corps assesses the consequences of proposed activities on water bodies, balancing environmental and developmental need and concerns. This often brings environmental and business groups into conflict such as in the case of dredging. Environmental groups oppose...

Elements of Shareholder Value

The vertical axis of Exhibit 3.2 reflects the firm's need to manage today's business while simultaneously creating tomorrow's technology and markets. This dimension captures the tension created by the need to realize short-term results while simultaneously fulfilling expectations for future growth. The horizontal axis reflects the firm's need to nurture and protect internal organizational skills, technologies, and capabilities while simultaneously infusing the firm with new perspectives and knowledge from outside stakeholders. This dimension reflects the tension created by the need to buffer the technical core so that it can operate without distraction, while at the same time remaining open to fresh perspectives and new, disruptive models and technologies.

Integrating Art and Science

Environmental assessment, in common with most other complex processes, has elements which represent rigorous scientific endeavor. Some examples might be the analysis of soil or water samples, or the design of a plan to acquire these samples. The selection of instrumentation to measure soil loss or air quality is equally complex, with numerous references, formulas, and guidelines from handbooks and rule books from regulatory agencies. These examples are related to a knowledge of the scientific principles involved. A skillful project manager will be knowledgeable about the basic principles of a dozen or more sciences, from civil engineering through biology, or will seek the advice of persons trained in these areas.

Power Generation Economics

On financing, Chinese domestic wind power developers can borrow up to 80 of the project costs, while there is a 66 limit on borrowing by foreign investors. This tends to lower the return on equity of foreign investor-owned projects. Furthermore, to qualify for clean development mechanism (CDM) credits, projects are required to be at least 51 Chinese-owned, which forces international investors to hand over control of the project to a Chinese partner. Most wind power developers expect that higher electricity prices will be offered to wind projects, as the government moves towards a pricing regime more designed to support renewables and more cost-reflective. Currently, the rate of

The Recipe For Success In Highperformance Projects

We find that by having a road map, a new person on the project can just pick up where another person left off. The road map is very detailed. It says who's meeting whom, when and for what purpose. It bundles the analysis process for all major systems energy, water, materials, habitat, marketing, construction, master planning, architecture, project management, renewable energy. All of those systems are identified as line items and then brought together into the whole system as the design process moves from concept through schematic design. By the way, if you aren't done with these analyses by schematic design, you've likely missed opportunities for the most environmental and cost effective solutions. It can get quite complex but if you don't have it, the team will likely fall back into isolated decision making and overly simplistic dis-integrated ideas. Another key lesson from this tale is that principals need to stay with the project. For this process to work well, calendars have to...

Community environmentalism

In many developing countries there is a substantial community-based environmentalism that is often supported by development-assistance organizations in the industrialized countries. These efforts at ecodevelop-ment, or green development, as William Adams has called them, were, at an early stage, stimulated by the training programs and other activities of the United Nations Environment Programme which was established after the UN Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 (Adams 1990 Sachs 1994). Over the years involvement of non-governmental development and environmental organizations in these projects has increased to the point where many environmentalists have developed an expertise in both project management and particular techniques of public participation and collaboration (Chambers 1997).

Computercaused Disasters And Computer Replacements For Humans

In 1992, British Nuclear Fuels had detected 2,400 errors, about 100 of which could have 'placed a demand upon the safety systems' (to quote the project manager's careful words), in an early version of software to control its huge new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. When a computer program contains more than a couple of thousand lines of code, finding all its faults can be near impossible. Even prolonged practical testing may fail to reveal them. Under plausible mathematical assumptions, there is only a

Highperformance on a budget

The more developers engage experienced green design and construction firms, the more they require their consultants to produce high-performance results (without excuses), the more likely it is that overall project costs will not exceed costs for a conventional project that doesn't have the benefits of a high-level green project.

Use of certification programs for green building projects

Created in 2000, CHPS was originally created for use in California since that time it has been regionally adapted in Massachusetts, Washington and New York, and it is currently being adapted by additional New England states. Since its inception in California, CHPS has not only expanded geographically but also in the programs it offers and in 2007 introduced the CHPS Verified program. This program combines project management, the CHPS building Criteria and a third-party assessment to ensure that the school project is designed and built to the highest-performance standards. A school is recognized as CHPS Verified by an independent, third party.25

Mexican Environmental Negotiations Gray Whales and the Desert Biosphere Reserve

In the past, this type of move by politicians and the ESSA would likely have worked however, in response to these actions and the irregular project acceptance practices being brought to light, actors within Mexico's federal environmental agencies were persuaded to add their voices to this informal bargaining 31,32 . In support of greater transparency and public participation, and greater accountability for following decision-making procedures, Julia Carabias, head of Mexico's federal environmental agency (SEMARNAP), made a concerted effort to open up the environmental review process to guarantee greater objectivity. First, Carabias posted the project on the Internet in contrast, federal authorities in charge of the first environmental impact assessment never did release the report to the public. Second, Carabias made the decision to convene a scientific advisory committee to oversee the new (second) environmental impact assessment. This advisory committee included seven distinguished...

What Needs to Happen

To get a better handle on what can be done, we interviewed several experienced LEED project management consultants around the country. Here are some of the fixes they recommended 4 Building teams shouldn't expect to get paid extra for each project to do the same level of effort in green design and certification. My advice to them get your costs down with each subsequent project. Look at LEED project management as a process amenable to the same process improvement steps as project design and delivery. One engineer noted the architecture and engineering firms should be charging lump-sum fees for the value they bring to an integrated design team.1

Figure

Cost inflation has hit upstream projects in all regions. The average capital cost of projects (weighted by production) under development is estimated to have risen by about 50 since 2006 (Figure 13.10). At present, the cost of new capacity is highest for gas-to-liquids plants, at close to 110 000 per barrel per day. The Middle East remains the lowest-cost region, with an average capital cost for all projects of just over 10 000 b d. Worldwide, upstream costs rose on average by an estimated 90 between 2000 and 2007 and by a further 5 in the first half of 2008, based on the IEA Upstream Investment Cost Index, or UICI (Box 13.3 and Figure 13.11). Most of the increase occurred in 2004-2007. Exploration and development costs have risen at roughly the same rates. Costs have risen most for materials, products, hiring land rigs and project-management fees, all of which have more than doubled since 2000.

Smart Buildings

Over the years, architects and engineers have moved from hand-drawing buildings to designing buildings using software or computer aided design (CAD) tools that create a series of two-dimensional (2D) sketches. The new tool for drawing is called Building Information Modeling (BIM), a digital. 3D model of a building that is linked to a database of project information. Some describe BIM, at its heart, as a database in the visual form of a virtual building. BIM can combine, among other things, the design, fabrication information, erection instructions, and project management logistics into one database. It is also a platform for collaboration throughout the project's design and construction. And because the model and database can exist for the life of a building, the owner can use BIM to manage the facility well beyond the completion of construction for such purposes as space planning, furnishing, long-term energy performance and energy recovery, maintenance, carbon dioxide monitoring,...

Contractors

Major oil companies have always used some subcontractors, but 'outsourcing' has become even more prevalent over the last two decades. Contractors not only supply crucial equipment such as drilling rigs or pipelines, they also provide oil companies with IT systems and specialised equipment, carry out seismic surveys and drilling operations on their behalf, construct and maintain oil infrastructure and so on. Indeed, some contractors are themselves large multinational companies such as Halliburton, Schlumberger and Aker (see Table 3.2). One could even say that the main function of Shell or Exxon is often to negotiate oil concessions with the host government and to provide a 'co-ordination mechanism' for the exploration and production activities that are carried out on its behalf by a large army of contractors. Indeed, companies such as Shell or Exxon may even outsource technical project management.

Implementation

One of the ways in which the Climate Convention envisages Southern parties being able to fulfil their commitments, is through the transfer of technologies from Annex 1 parties to non-Annex 1 parties. Here too there is potential for a great deal of NGO influence, by ensuring that technologies are appropriate to local circumstances and not redundant technologies from the North. Overseeing the transfer of appropriate technology will, however, be a difficult task for NGOs. The Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the interim institutional mechanism by which these transfers will be orchestrated, is regarded by some as being inaccessible to the views and representations of environmental NGOs. The Ad Hoc Working Group on Global Warming and Energy, under the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel of the GEF, provides one point of contact for NGOs to assert their choice of criteria for projects. NGOs may participate in initial project identification through the consultation process that is...

Project Oversight

Throughout design and construction, the university must exercise detailed oversight to ensure that systems meet the institution's needs. Catching mistakes, overdesign, or underdesign early, before they are buried in construction documents, will make problems easier and less costly to fix. A qualified and experienced project manager can probably save his or her salary many times over in the course of a project by keeping a careful eye on the process. Climate change advocates can help take responsibility for overseeing and ensuring quality in the areas they are interested in whenever possible.

Tufts Takes the LEED

According to Sarah Hammond Creighton, the Tufts Climate Initiative (TCI) Project Manager, there will be several energy-efficient technologies included in Sophia Gordon Hall, but the most visible to students and to members of the Tufts community will be two solar technologies.

The Design Process

In a conventional design, much of the work in the schematic design phase is driven by the architect, with the engineers participating to discuss what is needed to make the building stand up (structural) and be comfortable (mechanical). However, this early design phase is a logical place to think about the building as a system of interconnected, rather than separate, design pieces. A design charrette (a meeting of the team to discuss the building and its goals, and to create ways to meet the goals) can be instrumental for bridging this gap at this early phase of the process. But the project manager and the team will need to work hard throughout to overcome what is usually a linear design process in which the differing disciplines each do their piece of the work in isolation and then hand the design on to the next specialist. This compartmentaliza-tion is hard to overcome, and undermines both design integration and building performance.14 Early design efforts are likely to get the best...

Endusers

ESCOs can also make energy-efficiency projects without having an obligation to comply with. They find sources (usually with a third-party financing contract) to cover project costs and then obtain two income sources both from an agreement with end-users and from selling EECs into the market (see Figure 1).

Bicycle Commuting

In addition to giving access to public transportation, green buildings very often provide accommodations for bicycle commuters, since the cost of doing so is typically small relative to overall project costs. In many cities that are bicycle-oriented, increasing numbers of people are commuting to work in this healthy, friendly, non-polluting way.3 In my former home of Portland, buses and light-rail cars were outfitted to hold bicycles for the long trek home, especially in darkness (evening commutes in the winter) and rainy weather. Madison, Wisconsin, has the most mileage of bike trails for a city of its size. Over the past 30 years, the city has instituted more than 30 miles of bike paths and 110 miles of on-road bike lanes. For trips under five miles, it's faster to pedal than drive in many cases.

List of Contributors

Pauline Gothberg, Licentiate of Economics, from the Department of Business studies, Uppsala University. Pauline has studied CSR on a corporate level, more specifically, she has examined the conditions for social projects to be organized and established in multinational corporations. Currently, Pauline is working as a project manager with a brief to establish a new research institute at MID Sweden University.

About our Authors

Claudia Ho Lem is currently a Project Manager for REAP-Canada's International Development and Bioenergy Programs. A rural development specialist with over 10 years of experience in environmental project management, Ms. Ho Lem holds a B.Sc. in Environmental Science specializing in Biology and Chemistry from the University of Calgary. She has worked on bioenergy, climate change and agro-ecological development in China, the Philippines, Cuba, West Africa and Canada, supporting farming communities in increasing their self-sufficiency through participatory assessments, training and research. Her experience has given her an integrated understanding of the social, economic, biological, ecosystem and health impacts of agricultural development. Ms. Bailey Stamler is the Climate Change Project Manager with REAP-Canada. She has been working with REAP developing business plans for international carbon trading projects using small scale biomass energy technologies in the Philippines, Nigeria and...

Going Offshore

A company called Talisman Energy (NYSE TLM) was installing two heavy-duty turbines next to an existing oil and gas platform that would increase the efficiency of the original structure and maximize oil recovery from the field. Now while this would certainly give one of its older platforms a new lease on life, it also set the company up to lead the new power sector with up to 200 more turbines nearby. And it wasn ' t a difficult transition, because the company was already utilizing many of the project management, engineering, and fabrication skills developed in the UK's offshore oil and gas industry.

Falling Costs

Department of Energy on the U.S. wind power market supports this assertion. Entitled Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends 2006, it analyzed project costs, turbine sizes, and developer consolidation, and concluded that Wind

Construction

Regardless of the contractor, the construction process needs careful supervision by the design firm and by an owner's representative (project manager) in order to prevent mistakes or to catch them before it becomes costly to change them. The substitution of products is an important area to pay attention to during the building process. The sealing of exterior spaces and the installation of all ductwork are two of the many procedures that should receive careful scrutiny because of their climate change implications.

Team Structure

General contractor and key subcontractors such as the mechanical contractor. When they understand how high-performance projects come together and are well-integrated into the building team from the beginning, cost premiums tend to evaporate. Indeed, without accurate estimates for the cost of mechanical systems, many energy-saving opportunities can be missed. Matthiessen sees a link here between early contractor involvement and project costs.

Shifting Sand

The Army Corps does not, in fact, officially ignore sea-level rise. Anthony Ciorra, project manager for the Army Corps Beach Erosion Control Project that stretches from Sandy Hook south to the Barnegat Inlet, said in 2003 that all but a few miles of the 21-mile replenishment project is completed. We definitely factor in sea-level rise as part of the project design, Ciorra says. We calculate what it has been over the last 50 years for our benchmark.

Conclusion

Energy systems are, and the transformation of them, would be, in general, more complex than many people realize. The complexity of these systems and the different ways by which changes in one system influence the need for change in other systems require analysis. In order to make sure that the money invested in development and transformation activities gives the most rapid results possible we need to make a strategy and a plan for the overall transition, and break these down into strategies and plans for the different streams of the program, and the projects that would need to be included in each stream. Each stream and project, and the program itself, in a particular country will need a steering committee, a project management structure and project resources. In a planned program, which is run based on a plan that should be supported by the government of a country, a set of tools for program and project management are needed.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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